Hellenica World


Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Subclassis: Pterygota
Divisio: Neoptera
Subdivisiones: Endopterygota - Paraneoptera - Polyneoptera - Incertae Sedis


Neoptera Martynov, 1923.


* Terry, M.D. and M.F. Whiting. 2005: Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics, 21(3): 240-257.
* Ali, D.W. and D.C. Darling. 1998: Neuroanatomy and neurochemistry: implications for the phylogeny of the lower Neoptera. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 76(9): 1628-1633.
* Wheeler, W.C., M. Whiting, Q.D. Wheeler, and J.M. Carpenter. 2001: The phylogeny of the extant hexapod orders. Cladistics, 17: 113-169.

Vernacular Names
Български: Новокрили
Deutsch: Neuflügler
Français: Néoptère
日本語: 新翅節 (しんしせつ)
한국어: 신시하강
Русский: Новокрылые насекомые
中文: 新翅下綱


Neoptera is a classification group that includes almost all the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Paleoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way.

ITIS lumps all neopteran orders together in this infraclass without subdivision; other authorities recognise several superorders within it. Almost universally accepted are the Exopterygota - hemimetabolous neopterans, in which the wings are already visible before the adult stage and no pupa or chrysalis stage occurs -, and the Endopterygota, the holometabolous insects in which the wings develop inside the body during the larval stage and only become external appendages during the pupa or chrysalis stage.

As of recently, there are several attempts to resolve the neopteran diversity further. While this appears to be less controversial than in the (apparently paraphyletic) "Palaeoptera", there are nonetheless lots of unresolved questions. For example, the hymenopterans, traditionally considered highly advanced due to their intricate social systems, seem to be far more basal among the Endopterygota, as suggested by their relatively plesiomorphic anatomy and molecular data. The exact position of the proposed Dictyoptera is also uncertain, namely whether they are better considered Exopterygota or basal neopterans.

Detailed classification

Here is a list of living and fossil neopteran orders. Supraordinal taxonomy is currently in a state of constant flux (and likely will be for some time to come).

Superorder Exopterygota

* Caloneurodea (fossil)
* Titanoptera (fossil)
* Protorthoptera (fossil)
* Plecoptera (stoneflies)
* Embioptera (webspinners)
* Zoraptera (angel insects)
* Dermaptera (earwigs)
* Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc.)

Proposed superorder Dictyoptera

* Phasmatodea (stick insects - tentatively placed here)
* Notoptera (ice-crawlers & gladiators - tentatively placed here)
* Blattaria (cockroaches)
* Isoptera (termites)
* Mantodea (mantids)

Proposed superorder Paraneoptera

* Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)
* Thysanoptera (thrips)
* Phthiraptera (lice)
* Hemiptera (true bugs)

Superorder Endopterygota sensu stricto

* Hymenoptera (ants, bees, etc.)
* Coleoptera (beetles)
* Strepsiptera (twisted-winged parasites)

Proposed superorder Neuropterida/Neuropteroidea

* Raphidioptera (snakeflies)
* Megaloptera (alderflies, etc.)
* Neuroptera (net-veined insects)

Proposed superorder Mecopteroidea/Antliophora

* Mecoptera (scorpionflies, etc.)
* Siphonaptera (fleas)
* Diptera (true flies)
* Protodiptera (fossil)

Proposed superorder Amphiesmenoptera

* Trichoptera (caddisflies)
* Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths)

Incertae sedis

* Glosselytrodea (fossil)
* Miomoptera (fossil)

Biology Encyclopedia

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License


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