Hellenica World


Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Cladus: Pterygota
Cladi: "basal Pterygota" - Metapterygota
[list of cladi adapted from Grimaldi & Engel (2005: 147, table 4.1)]

Overview of extant ordines : Blattodea - Coleoptera - Dermaptera - Diptera - Embiidina - Ephemeroptera - Grylloblattodea - Hemiptera - Hymenoptera - Isoptera - Lepidoptera - Mantodea - Mantophasmatodea - Mecoptera - Megaloptera - Neuroptera - Odonata - Orthoptera - Phasmatodea - Phthiraptera - Plecoptera - Psocoptera - Raphidioptera - Siphonaptera - Strepsiptera - Thysanoptera - Trichoptera - Zoraptera


Pterygota Gegenbaur, 1878


* Grimaldi, D.; Engel, M.S. 2005: Evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA. limited preview on Google books
* Toms, R.B. 2007: Rooting the phylogenetic tree for winged insects: independent adaptations to terrestrial life. African invertebrates, 48(1): 203-211. PDF
* Wheeler, W.C., M. Whiting, Q.D. Wheeler, and J.M. Carpenter. 2001: The phylogeny of the extant hexapod orders. Cladistics, 17: 113-169.
* Wootton, R.J. 1992: Functional morphology of insect wings. Annual Review of Entomology, 37: 113-140.

Vernacular Names
Български: Крилати
Česky: Křídlatí
Deutsch: Fluginsekten
English: Winged Insects
Français: Ptérygote
Hrvatski: Krilaši
Magyar: Szárnyas rovarok
日本語: 有翅昆虫亜綱 (ゆうしこんちゅうあこう)
Polski: Owady uskrzydlone
Русский: Крылатые насекомые
Slovenščina: Krilate žuželke
Suomi: Siipikantaiset
Svenska: Bevingade insekter
中文: 有翅亞

Pterygota is a subclass of insects that includes the winged insects. It also includes insect orders that are secondarily wingless (that is, insect groups whose ancestors once had wings but that have lost them as a result of subsequent evolution).

The pterygotan group comprises almost all insects. The hexapod orders not included are the Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) and the Thysanura (silverfishes and firebrats), two primitively wingless insect orders. Also not included are the three orders that are no longer considered to be insects: Protura, Collembola, and Diplura.


Traditionally, this group was divided into the infraclasses Paleoptera and Neoptera. The former are nowadays strongly suspected of being paraphyletic, and better treatments (such as dividing or dissolving the group) are presently being discussed. In addition, it is not clear how exactly the neopterans are related among each other. The Exopterygota might be a similar assemblage of rather ancient hemimetabolous insects among the Neopteras like the Palaeoptera are among insects as a whole. The holometabolous Endopterygota seem to be very close relatives indeed, but nonetheless appear to contain several clades of related orders, the status of which is not agreed upon.

The following scheme uses finer divisions than the one above, which is not well-suited to correctly accommodating the fossil groups.

"Infraclass Paleoptera"

(probably paraphyletic)

* Ephemeroptera (mayflies)
* Palaeodictyoptera (Extinct)
* Megasecoptera (Extinct)
* Archodonata (Extinct)
* Diaphanopterodea (Extinct)
* Protodonata or Meganisoptera (Extinct; sometimes included in Odonata)
* Protanisoptera (Extinct; sometimes included in Odonata)
* Triadophlebioptera (Extinct; sometimes included in Odonata)
* Protozygoptera or Archizygoptera (Extinct; sometimes included in Odonata)
* Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)

Infraclass Neoptera

Superorder Exopterygota

* Caloneurodea (Extinct)
* Titanoptera (Extinct)
* Protorthoptera (Extinct)
* Plecoptera (stoneflies)
* Embioptera (webspinners)
* Zoraptera (angel insects)
* Dermaptera (earwigs)
* Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc.)
* Proposed superorder Dictyoptera
o Phasmatodea (stick insects - tentatively placed here)
o Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers - tentatively placed here)
o Mantophasmatodea (gladiators - tentatively placed here)
o Blattaria (cockroaches)
o Isoptera (termites)
o Mantodea (mantids)
* Proposed superorder Paraneoptera
o Psocoptera (booklice, barklice)
o Thysanoptera (thrips)
o Phthiraptera (lice)
o Hemiptera (true bugs)

Superorder Endopterygota

* Hymenoptera (ants, bees, etc.)
* Coleoptera (beetles)
* Strepsiptera (twisted-winged parasites)
* Raphidioptera (snakeflies)
* Megaloptera (alderflies, etc.)
* Neuroptera (net-veined insects)
* Proposed superorder Mecopteroidea/Antliophora
o Mecoptera (scorpionflies, etc.)
o Siphonaptera (fleas)
o Diptera (true flies)
o Protodiptera (Extinct)
* Proposed superorder Amphiesmenoptera
o Trichoptera (caddisflies)
o Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths)

Neoptera orders incertae sedis

* Glosselytrodea (Extinct)
* Miomoptera (Extinct)

Biology Encyclopedia

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License


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