Litchi chinensis

Litchi chinensis (*)

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Sapindales
Familia: Sapindaceae
Genus: Litchi
Species: Litchi chinensis

Litchi chinensis (*)

Vernacular names

Ελληνικά: Λίτσι

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The lychee (usual English spelling) or laichi and lichu is the sole member of the genus Litchi in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae. It is a tropical and subtropical fruit tree. It is primarily found in Asia, Southern Africa and Mexico. It is a fragranced fruit with a sweet taste.

It is a medium-sized evergreen tree, reaching 15–20 m tall, with alternate pinnate leaves, each leaf 15–25 cm long, with 2-8 lateral leaflets 5–10 cm long; the terminal leaflet is absent. The newly emerging young leaves are a bright coppery red at first, before turning green as they expand to full size. The flowers are small, greenish-white or yellowish-white, produced in panicles up to 30 cm long.
Flowers at Samsing in Darjeeling district of West Bengal, India.

The fruit is a drupe, 3–4 cm long and 3 cm in diameter. The outside is covered by a pink-red, roughly-textured rind that is inedible but easily removed. They are eaten in many different dessert dishes. The inside consists of a layer of sweet, translucent white flesh, rich in vitamin C, with a texture somewhat similar to that of a grape only much less moist. The edible flesh consists of a highly developed aril enveloping the seed. The center contains a single glossy brown nut-like seed, 2 cm long and 1–1.5 cm in diameter. The seed, similar to a buckeye seed, is poisonous[citation needed] and should not be eaten. The fruit matures about 100 days after flowering. There are two subspecies:

* Litchi chinensis subsp. chinensis. China, Indochina (Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia). Leaves with 4 to 8 (rarely 2) leaflets.
* Litchi chinensis subsp. philippinensis (Radlk.) Leenh. Philippines, Indonesia. Leaves with 2-4 (rarely 6) leaflets.

History
A major early Chinese historical reference to lychees was made in the Tang Dynasty, when it was the favourite fruit of Emperor Li Longji (Xuanzong)'s favoured concubine Yang Yuhuan (Yang Guifei). The emperor had the fruit, which was only grown in southern China, delivered by the imperial messenger service's fast horses, whose riders would take shifts day and night in a Pony Express-like manner, to the capital. (Most historians believe the fruits were delivered from modern Guangdong, but some believe they came from modern Sichuan.)

In the Chinese classical work, Shanglin Fu, it is related that the alternate name, meaning leaving its branches, is so-called because once the fruit is picked it deteriorates quickly.

The lychee was first described in the West by Pierre Sonnerat (1748–1814) on a return from his travel to China and Southeast Asia.

It was then introduced to the Réunion Island in 1764 by Joseph-François Charpentier de Cossigny de Palma. It was later introduced to Madagascar which has become a major producer.

Cultivation and uses
Lychees are extensively grown in China, and also elsewhere in South-East Asia, especially in Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, southern Japan, and more recently in California, Hawaii, Texas, Florida,[2] the wetter areas of eastern Australia and sub-tropical regions of South Africa, Israel and also in the states of Sinaloa and San Luis Potosí (specifically, in La Huasteca) in Mexico. They require a warm subtropical to tropical climate that is cool but also frost-free or with only very slight winter frosts not below -4°C, and with high summer heat, rainfall, and humidity. Growth is best on well-drained, slightly acidic soils rich in organic matter. A wide range of cultivars is available, with early and late maturing forms suited to warmer and cooler climates respectively. They are also grown as an ornamental tree as well as for their fruit.
Lychees are commonly sold fresh in Vietnamese, Chinese and Asian markets, and in recent years, also widely in supermarkets worldwide. The red rind turns dark brown when the fruit is refrigerated, but the taste is not affected. It is also sold canned year-round. The fruit can be dried with the rind intact, at which point the flesh shrinks and darkens.

According to folklore, a lychee tree that is not producing much fruit can be girdled, leading to more fruit production.

Cultivars

There are many different cultivars of lychee, of which two are considered to be the most sought-after.

The "Prestigious Cultivars"
* Hanging Green (gualü, 掛綠): The most famous (and most rare) lychee in existence. It received its name because of the barely noticeable light green hue and green line on the shell. Ancient records have described Hanging Green as "Fresh and crispy as pear, without juice. It can last for three days after the shell is removed". For centuries, Hanging Green was an item of tribute to the imperial government of various dynasties, until people in Canton revolted during the Qianlong era against the tributes and chopped all but one of the Hanging Green trees. The sole remaining tree still produces fruit each year, and fruits from that tree are now called "Zhengcheng Hanging Green" (Zengcheng gualü, 增城掛綠).

* Sweet Osmanthus Flavour (gui mei, 桂味): Named because of the Sweet Osmanthus flavour it contains, this lychee has light red shells, which contains sharp edges. The fruits are described as crispy and sweet. There is a related cultivar, called "Yatou Green" (yatoulü, 鴨頭綠). The shell of this cultivar has dark green spots.

* Glutinous Rice Ball (nuomici, 糯米糍): Named after its thick fruit flesh and sweet (some described the taste as close to honey) flavours. The fresh red shells are not sharp and hard, and the seeds from this cultivar are noticeably smaller than others. Some fruits from this cultivar are seedless.


Vải thiều

Vải thiều is a well-known cultivar in Vietnam. It roots in Thanh Ha district, Hai Duong province and recently exists in Luc Ngan district, Bac Giang province. The fruit is notable for its small globe, red shell, tiny or no seed, very sweet taste and special flavour.

Other notable cultivars

* Baila (白臘)
* Baitangying (白糖罌)
* Black Leaves (黑葉): This cultivar matures less than others, and has big meats and seeds. The shell exhibits a dark red tint.
* Huaizhi (懷枝): Literally "Branches [of fruit] in the arms of [a person]", this lychee supposedly received its name when a government official toured Lingnan (modern day Canton) and placed within his arms lychee branches gifted by local villagers.
* March Red (sanyuehong, 三月紅): This lychee matures the earliest, and are usually available annually around March. This particular type has a more subtle fragrance and is sweeter than most.
* The Concubine Smiles (feizixiao, 妃子笑): Famed as the cultivar of lychee Emperor Xuanzong of Tang brought from the edges of the Tang empire to cheer up Yang Guifei, this lychee matures earlier than others, and has a very light red tint on its shells.
* The Jade Purse (yuhebao, 玉荷包): Named because of its large fruits and the thick flesh within. The seed is small in this cultivar.


Nutritional Facts
The Lychee contains on average a total 72 mg of Vitamin C per 100 grams of fruit.[3] On average nine lychee fruits would meet an adult’s daily recommend Vitamin C requirement.

A cup of Lychee fruit provides, among other minerals, for a 2000 Calorie diet, 14%DV of copper, 9%DV of phosphorus, and 6%DV of potassium.

Lychees are low in saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium. Most of the energy in a lychee is in the form of carbohydrate (sugar). Lychees are high in polyphenols, containing 15% more than grapes, a fruit commonly referenced as high in polyphenols.[4]
References
1. ^ "Litchi chinensis Sonn.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1995-10-17. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?22399. Retrieved 2010-01-19.
2. ^ Crane, Jonathan H.; Carlos F. Balerdi and Ian Maguire (2008). "Lychee Growing in the Florida Home Landscape". University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/MG051. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
3. ^ USDA. "Litchis, raw". Nutrition Data. http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts/fruits-and-fruit-juices/1945/2. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
4. ^ Pierre Brat, Stéphane Georgé, Annick Bellamy, Laure Du Chaffaut, Augustin Scalbert, Louise Mennen, Nathalie Arnault and Marie Josèphe Amiot (9 2006). "Daily Polyphenol Intake in France from Fruit and Vegetables". The Journal of Nutrition 136: 2368–2373.IT.


Further reading

* Hui, Y. H. (2008). "Lychee". Handbook of Fruites and Fruit Processing. New Delhi: Wiley India. pp. 606–611. ISBN 978-81-265-1788-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=Q5XgP-aLmWIC&pg=PA606.
* Kadam, S. S.; S. S. Deshpande (1995). "Lychee". in D. K. Salunkhe and S. S. Kadam. Handbook of fruit science and technology: production, composition, storage, and processing. New York: M. Dekker. pp. 435–443. ISBN 978-0-8247-9643-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=v2WnS_2ZmDwC&pg=PA435.
* Rosengarten, Frederic (2004). "Litchi 'Nuts'". The book of edible nuts. New York: Dover Publications. pp. 299–300. ISBN 978-0-486-43499-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=7CK8LFCcvtcC&pg=PA299.

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