Eudicots

Classification System: APG II

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots - Unassigned Eudicots

Name

Eudicots

References

* Angiosperm Phylogeny Group; 2003; "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering: APG II" Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141:399–436 [1]

Eudicots and Eudicotyledons are terms introduced by Doyle & Hotton (1991) to refer to a monophyletic group of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-Magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The term means, literally, "true dicotyledons" as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicotyledons and have typical dicotyledonous characters. The term "eudicots" has been widely adopted to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms (constituting >70% of all angiosperms), monocots being the other. The remaining dicots are sometimes referred to as paleodicots but this term has not been widely adopted as it does not refer to a monophyletic group.

A large number of familiar plants are eudicots. A few are forget-me-not, cabbage, apple, dandelion, buttercup, maple and macadamia.

Another name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the structure of the pollen. The group has tricolpate pollen, or forms derived from it. These pollen have three or more pores set in furrows called colpi. In contrast, most of the other seed plants (that is the gymnosperms, the monocots and the paleodicots) produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus. The name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists in order to avoid confusion with the dicots, a non-monophyletic group (Judd & Olmstead 2004).

The name eudicots (plural) is used in the APG system, of 1998, and APG II system, of 2003, for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a clade, a monophyletic group, which includes most of the (former) dicotyledons.
Subdivisions

The eudicots can be divided into two groups: the basal eudicots and the core eudicots. [1] Basal eudicots is an informal name for a paraphyletic group. The core eudicots are a monophyletic group. [2]

A second study has suggested that the eudicots can be divided into two clades - Pentapetalae - comprising all core eudicots except Gunnerales - and Gunnerales.[3]

Pentapetalae can be then divided into three clades:

* (i) a "superrosid" clade consisting of Rosidae, Vitaceae and Saxifragales
* (ii) a "superasterid" clade consisting of Berberidopsidales, Santalales, Caryophyllales and Asteridae
* (iii) Dilleniaceae

Within the core eudicots, the largest groups are the "rosids" (core group with the prefix "eu−") and the "asterids" (core group with the prefix "eu−").

* eudicots :

core eudicots :

rosids :

eurosids I
eurosids II

asterids :

euasterids I
euasterids II

In more detail, within each clade some unplaced families and orders (unplaced genera are not mentioned):

* clade eudicots

family Buxaceae [+ family Didymelaceae]
family Sabiaceae
family Trochodendraceae [+ family Tetracentraceae]

order Ranunculales
order Proteales

clade core eudicots

family Aextoxicaceae
family Berberidopsidaceae
family Dilleniaceae

order Gunnerales
order Caryophyllales
order Saxifragales
order Santalales

clade rosids

family Aphloiaceae
family Geissolomataceae
family Ixerbaceae
family Picramniaceae
family Strassburgeriaceae
family Vitaceae

order Crossosomatales
order Geraniales
order Myrtales

clade eurosids I

family Zygophyllaceae [+ family Krameriaceae]
family Huaceae

order Celastrales
order Malpighiales
order Oxalidales
order Fabales
order Rosales
order Cucurbitales
order Fagales

clade eurosids II

family Tapisciaceae

order Brassicales
order Malvales
order Sapindales

clade asterids

order Cornales
order Ericales

clade euasterids I

family Boraginaceae
family Icacinaceae
family Oncothecaceae
family Vahliaceae

order Garryales
order Solanales
order Gentianales
order Lamiales

clade euasterids II

family Bruniaceae
family Columelliaceae [+ family Desfontainiaceae]
family Eremosynaceae
family Escalloniaceae
family Paracryphiaceae
family Polyosmaceae
family Sphenostemonacae
family Tribelaceae

order Aquifoliales
order Apiales
order Dipsacales
order Asterales

Note : “ + ....” = optional, as a segregate of the previous family.
References

1. ^ Worberg A, Quandt D, Barniske A-M, Löhne C, Hilu KW, Borsch T (2007) Phylogeny of basal eudicots: insights from non-coding and rapidly evolving DNA. Organisms, Diversity and Evolution 7 (1), 55-77.
2. ^ Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, Peter K. Endress, and Mark W. Chase. Phylogeny and Evolution of Angiosperms. Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA, USA. (2005).
3. ^ Moore MJ, Soltis PS, Bell CD, Burleigh JG, Soltis DE (2010) Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes further resolves the early diversification of eudicots. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA

* Doyle, J. A. & Hotton, C. L. Diversification of early angiosperm pollen in a cladistic context. Pp. 169-195 in Pollen and Spores. Patterns of Diversification (eds Blackmore, S. & Barnes, S. H.) (Clarendon, Oxford, 1991).
* Walter S. Judd and Richard G. Olmstead (2004). "A survey of tricolpate (eudicot) phylogenetic relationships". American Journal of Botany 91: 1627–1644. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1627. (full text )
* Eudicots in Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7, May 2006.

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