Campanulaceae

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Asterales
Familia: Campanulaceae
Subfamiliae: Campanuloideae - Cyphioideae - Lobelioideae

Name

Campanulaceae Juss.

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Magyar: Harangvirágfélék
Nederlands: Klokjesachtigen
Русский: Колокольчиковые
Suomi: Kellokasvit
Türkçe: Çan çiçeğigiller
Українська: Дзвоникові

The family Campanulaceae (also bellflower family), of the order Asterales, contains about 2000 species, in 70 genera, of herbaceous plants, shrubs, and rarely small trees, often with milky non-toxic sap. Among them are the familiar garden plants Campanula (bellflower), Lobelia, and Platycodon (balloonflower).

This family is almost cosmopolitan but concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere. However in the Southern Hemisphere, South Africa is remarkably rich in members of this family. These species are absent in the Sahara, Antarctica and northern Greenland.

Most current classifications include the segregate family Lobeliaceae in Campanulaceae as subfamily Lobelioideae.


Description

Leaves are often alternate, more rarely opposite. They are also simple and without stipules.

Flowers are bisexual, bell-shaped, consisting of a narrow tube-like corolla with small spreading lobes. Many are blue.

Fruits are berries or capsules.

Subfamilies and genera

Campanuloideae

* Adenophora
* Astrocodon
* Asyneuma
* Azorina
* Berenice
* Campanula
Bellflower
* Canarina
* Codonopsis
* Craterocapsa
* Cryptocodon
* Cyananthus
* Cylindrocarpa
* Echinocodon
* Edraianthus
* Feeria
* Gadellia
* Githopsis
Bluecup
* Gunillaea
* Hanabusaya
* Heterochaenia
* Heterocodon
* Homocodon
* Jasione
* Legousia
Venus' Looking-glass
* Leptocodon
* Lightfootia
* Merciera
* Michauxia
* Microcodon
* Musschia
* Namacodon
* Nesocodon
* Numaeacampa
* Ostrowskia
* Peracarpa
* Petromarula
* Physoplexis
* Phyteuma
* Platycodon
Balloonflower
* Popoviocodonia
* Prismatocarpus
* Rhigiophyllum
* Roella
* Rollandia
* Sergia
* Siphocodon
* Symphyandra
* Theilera
* Trachelium
* Treichelia
* Triodanis
* Wahlenbergia
* Zeugandra

Lobelioideae

* Apetahia
* Brighamia
* Burmeistera
* Centropogon
* Clermontia
* Cyanea
* Delissea
* Dialypetalum
* Diastatea
* Dielsantha
* Downingia
Calicoflower
* Grammatotheca
* Heterotoma
* Hippobroma
* Howellia
* Hypsela
* Isotoma
* Laurentia
= Isotoma, Solenopsis, Hippobroma

* Legenere
False Venus' Looking-glass
* Lobelia
* Lysipomia
* Monopsis
* Palmerella
* Porterella
* Pratia
* Ruthiella
* Sclerotheca
* Siphocampylus
* Solenopsis
* Trematocarpus
* Trematolobelia
False Lobelia
* Trimeris
* Unigenes

Cyphioideae

* Cyphia
* Cyphocarpus
* Nemacladus — Threadplant
* Parishella
* Pseudonemacladus


Literature

* Lammers, T.G. (2007) World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Kew Publishing, Richmond, Surrey.
* Fedorov, A., & Kovanda, M. (1976) Campanulaceae. In Flora Europaea (T.G. Tutin, V.H. Heywood, N.A. Burges, D.M. Moore, D.H. Valentine, S.M. Walters, & D.A. Webb, Eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 74-93.
* Borsch, T., Korotkova, N., Raus, T., Lobin, W., and Loehne, C. (2009) The petD group II intron as a genus and species level marker: Utility for tree inference and species identification in the diverse genus Campanula (Campanulaceae). In: Willdenowia, 39, 7-33. pdf online
* C. Roquet, L. Sáez, J. J. Aldasoro, S. Alfonso, M. L. Alarcón and N. Garcia-Jacas (2008) Natural delineation, molecular phylogeny and floral evolution in Campanula. Systematic Botany, 33, 203-217.
* M. E. Cosner, L. A. Raubeson, R. K. Jansen: „Chloroplast DNA rearrangements in Campanulaceae: phylogenetic utility of highly rearranged genomes“ In: BMC Evolutionary Biology 4(27)/2007, S. 1-17, online
* W. M. M. Eddie, T. Shulkina, J. Gaskin, R. C. Haberle & R. K. Jansen: Phylogeny of Campanulaceae s. str. inferred from ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA In: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 90(4)/2003. S. 554–575

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