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Tityra

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Aves
Subclassis: Carinatae
Infraclassis: Neornithes
Parvclassis: Neognathae
Ordo: Passeriformes
Subordo: Tyranni
Infraordo: Tyrannides
Parvordo: Tyrannida
Familia: Tyrannidae
Genus: Tityra
Species: T. cayana - T. inquisitor - T. semifasciata

Name

Tityra Vieillot, 1816

Vernacular name
Internationalization
Türkçe: Titira

Reference

Analyse D'Une Nouvelle Ornithologie Élémentaire p.39

The Tityras are passerine birds in the genus Tityra of the family Tityridae. They breed from southern Mexico throughout tropical Central and South America, including Trinidad.

These are medium-sized birds. Their plumage is quite unlike that of other tyrant flycatchers. The adult males are greyish-white above and white below, except for the wings and tail which are at least partially black. The males of all three species also have black head markings. The females are similar, but are duller, with browner head markings. The Black-tailed and the Masked Tityra both have a conspicuous red eye-ring and base of the bill.

Behavior

These species are found in forest clearings and edges, second growth and other semi-open habitats such as plantation shade trees. The eggs are laid in a bed of dry leaves in a tree hole, often an old woodpecker nest. The female incubates alone, but both parents feed the chicks. Fledging takes up to 25 days.

Tityras are seen alone or in pairs, perched conspicuously as they feed on medium-sized fruits, large insects and sometimes small lizards. They have unmusical nasal grunting or buzzing calls.

Taxonomy

The tityras have traditionally been placed in the cotinga or the tyrant flycatcher family, but evidence strongly suggest they are better placed in Tityridae, where now placed by SACC.[1] The Black-crowned Tityra is sometimes placed in a separate genus Erator.

* Black-tailed Tityra, Tityra cayana
o Brazilian Tityra, Tityra cayana braziliensis
* Masked Tityra, Tityra semifasciata
* Black-crowned Tityra, Tityra inquisitor

Another species, the White-tailed Tityra (Tityra leucura), is generally considered a variant of the Black-crowned Tityra, but recent evidence suggests it may be a valid species restricted to the Brazilian Amazon near the Madeira River.[2]

References

1. ^ Adopt the Family Tityridae - South American Classification Committee (2007)
2. ^ Whittaker, A. (2008). Field evidence for the validity of White-tailed Tityra Tityra leucura Pelzeln, 1868. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 128: 107–113.

* Hilty, Birds of Venezuela ISBN 978-0-7136-6418-8
* ffrench, Richard (1991). A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago (2nd edition ed.). Comstock Publishing. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2.
* Stiles and Skutch, A guide to the birds of Costa Rica ISBN 978-0-8014-9600-4

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