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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Superphylum: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Cladus: Craniata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Cladus: Reptiliomorpha
Cladus: Amniota
Classis: Reptilia
Cladus: Eureptilia
Cladus: Romeriida
Subclassis: Diapsida
Cladus: Sauria
Infraclassis: Archosauromorpha
Cladus: Crurotarsi
Divisio: Archosauria
Subsectio: Ornithodira
Subtaxon: Dinosauromorpha
Cladus: Dinosauria
Ordo: Saurischia
Cladus: Theropoda
Cladus: Neotheropoda
Infraclassis: Aves
Cladus: Euavialae
Cladus: Avebrevicauda
Cladus: Pygostylia
Cladus: Ornithothoraces
Cladus: Euornithes
Cladus: Ornithuromorpha
Cladus: Ornithurae
Cladus: Carinatae
Parvclassis: Neornithes
Cohors: Neognathae
Ordines (40): Accipitriformes – AnseriformesApodiformes – Bucerotiformes – Caprimulgiformes – Cariamiformes – Cathartiformes – CharadriiformesCiconiiformesColiiformesColumbiformesCoraciiformesCuculiformes – Eurypygiformes – FalconiformesGalliformesGaviiformesGruiformes – Leptosomiformes – Mesitornithiformes – Musophagiformes – Nyctibiiformes – Opisthocomiformes – Otidiformes – PasseriformesPelecaniformes – Phaethontiformes – PhoenicopteriformesPiciformesPodicipediformesProcellariiformesPsittaciformesPteroclidiformesSphenisciformes – Steatornithiformes – Strigiformes – Suliformes – Trogoniformes

Unplaced genera (1): †Australornis
Name

Neognathae Pycraft, 1900: 149
References
Primary references

Pycraft, W.P. 1900. On the Morphology and Phylogeny of the Palaeognathae (Ratitae and Crypturi) and Neognathae (Carinatae). Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 15(5): 149–290. BHL DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1900.tb00023.x Reference page.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Нованёбныя
čeština: Letci
Deutsch: Neukiefervögel
English: Neognath birds
español: Neognatas
français: Néognathes
italiano: Neognati
日本語: 新顎上目
македонски: Нововилични
polski: Ptaki neognatyczne, neognatyczne
русский: Новонёбные
svenska: Neognata fåglar
Türkçe: Uçucu kuşlar
українська: Кілегруді

Neognaths (Neognathae /niːˈɒɡnəθiː/, from Ancient Greek neo- "new" + gnáthos “jaw”) are birds within the subclass Neornithes of the class Aves. Neognathae includes the majority of living birds; the exceptions being the tinamous and the flightless ratites, which belong instead to the sister taxon Palaeognathae. There are nearly 10,000 living species of neognaths.

The earliest fossils are known from the very end of the Cretaceous but molecular clocks suggest that neognaths originated sometime in the first half of the Late Cretaceous, about 90 million year ago.[5] Since then, they have undergone adaptive radiation, producing the diversity of form, function, and behavior that exists today. Neognathae includes the order Passeriformes (perching birds), one of the largest orders of land vertebrates, containing some 60% of living birds. Passeriformes is twice as species-rich as Rodentia and about five times as species-rich as Chiroptera (bats), which are the two largest orders of mammals. Neognathae also contains some very small orders, often birds of unclear relationships like the hoatzin.

The neognaths have fused metacarpals, an elongate third finger, and 13 or fewer vertebrae. They differ from the Palaeognathae in features like the structure of their jawbones. "Neognathae" means "new jaws", but it seems that the supposedly "more ancient" paleognath jaws are among the few apomorphic (more derived) features of the palaeognaths, meaning that the respective jaw structure of these groups is not informative in terms of comparative evolution. A neognath-like palate is however seen in modern basal birds like Ichthyornis.[6]
Contents

1 Taxonomy and systematics
1.1 Systematics
1.1.1 Neognathia
1.1.2 Relationships
2 Footnotes
3 References
4 External links

Taxonomy and systematics

Neognathae was long ranked as a superorder subdivided into orders. Attempts to organise this group further, as in the Conspectus of Charles Lucien Bonaparte, were never accepted by a significant majority of ornithologists. Until the 1980s, there was little subdivision of the Aves in general, and even less of phylogenetic merit. Since then, the availability of massive amounts of new data from fossils (especially Enantiornithes and other Mesozoic birds) and molecular (DNA and protein) sequences allowed scientists to refine the classification. With new groups of neognath orders being verified, the taxonomic rank of the group needed to shift. Most researchers have now employed the unranked taxa of phylogenetic nomenclature.[7]

Neognathae is now universally accepted to subdivide into two lineages, the "fowl" clade Galloanseres and the Neoaves (sometimes called "higher neognaths"). The subdivisions of the latter are still not well resolved, but several monophyletic lineages have been proposed, such as the Mirandornithes, Cypselomorphae, Metaves, and Coronaves. Although groups such as the former two (uniting a few closely related orders) are robustly supported, this cannot be said for the groups Metaves and Coronaves for which there is no material evidence at present, while the Mesozoic record of Neognathae is at present utterly devoid of birds that should have been present if these proposed clades were real.[8]
Systematics

The orders are arranged in a sequence that attempts to follow the modern view on neognath phylogeny. It differs from the widely used Clements taxonomy as well as from the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, combining those elements from each that more modern research agrees with while updating those that are refuted. Most of the changes affect those "higher landbirds" that are sometimes united as near passerines.[9]
Neognathia

Feduccia defined the clade Neognathia as birds whose palatal mobility increased due to the following modifications (Feduccia 1980, 1996):

Loss of the Basipterygoid articulation with the cranium.
Development of a pterygoid/palatine joint.
Reduction of the vomer, such that it does not reach caudally to the pterygoid, or is lost entirely.

Relationships

Neognathae cladogram of modern bird relationships based on Braun & Kimball (2021)[10]
Neognathae

gnathae
Galloanserae

Galliformes (chickens and relatives) Red Junglefowl by George Edward Lodge white background.png

Anseriformes (ducks and relatives) Cuvier-97-Canard colvert.jpg

Neoaves
Mirandornithes

Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos)Cuvier-87-Flamant rouge.jpg

Podicipediformes (grebes)Podiceps cristatus Naumann white background.jpg

Columbimorphae

Columbiformes (pigeons)

Mesitornithiformes (mesites)Monias benschi 1912 white background.jpg

Pterocliformes (sandgrouse)Pterocles quadricinctus white background.jpg

Passerea

Otidiformes (bustards)Cayley Ardeotis australis flipped.jpg

Cuculiformes (cuckoos)British birds in their haunts (Cuculus canorus).jpg

Musophagiformes (turacos)Planches enluminées d'histoire naturelle (1765) (Tauraco persa).jpg

Gruiformes (rails and cranes)Cuvier-72-Grue cendrée.jpg

Charadriiformes (waders and relatives)D'Orbigny-Mouette rieuse et Bec-en-ciseaux white background.jpg

Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin)Cuvier-59-Hoazin huppé.jpg

Caprimulgiformes (swifts, hummingbirds, nightjars and allies)

Ardeae
Eurypygimorphae

Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds)Cuvier-95-Phaeton à bec rouge.jpg

Eurypygiformes (sunbittern and kagu)Cuvier-72-Caurale soleil.jpg

Aequornithes

Gaviiformes[11] (loons)

Austrodyptornithes

Procellariiformes (albatrosses and petrels) Thalassarche chlororhynchos 1838.jpg

Sphenisciformes (penguins) Chinstrap Penguin white background.jpg

Ciconiiformes (storks) Weißstorch (Ciconia ciconia) white background.jpg

Suliformes (boobies, cormorants, etc.) Cormorant in Strunjan, white background.png

Pelecaniformes (pelicans, herons & ibises) Spot-billed pelican takeoff white background.jpg

Telluraves
Accipitrimorphae

Cathartiformes (New World vultures)Vintage Vulture Drawing white background.jpg

Accipitriformes (hawks and relatives)Golden Eagle Illustration white background.jpg

Strigiformes (owls)Cuvier-12-Hibou à huppe courte.jpg

Coraciimorphae

Coliiformes (mouse birds)

Cavitaves

Leptosomiformes (cuckoo roller)

Trogoniformes (trogons and quetzals)Harpactes fasciatus 1838 white background.jpg

Picocoraciae

Bucerotiformes (hornbills and relatives)

Picodynastornithes

Coraciiformes (kingfishers and relatives)Cuvier-46-Martin-pêcheur d'Europe.jpg

Piciformes (woodpeckers and relatives)

Australaves

Cariamiformes (seriemas)Cariama cristata 1838 white background.jpg

Eufalconimorphae

Falconiformes (falcons)NewZealandFalconBuller white background.jpg

Psittacopasserae

Psittaciformes (parrots)Pyrrhura lucianii - Castelnau 2.jpg

Passeriformes (passerines)Cuvier-33-Moineau domestique.jpg


Footnotes

Field, Daniel J.; Benito, Juan; Chen, Albert; Jagt, John W. M.; Ksepka, Daniel T. (March 2020). "Late Cretaceous neornithine from Europe illuminates the origins of crown birds". Nature. 579 (7799): 397–401. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2096-0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 32188952.
De Pietri, Vanesa L.; Scofield, R. Paul; Zelenkov, Nikita; Boles, Walter E.; Worthy, Trevor H. (February 2016). "The unexpected survival of an ancient lineage of anseriform birds into the Neogene of Australia: the youngest record of Presbyornithidae". Royal Society Open Science. 3 (2): 150635. Bibcode:2016RSOS....350635D. doi:10.1098/rsos.150635. PMC 4785986. PMID 26998335.
Kuhl., H.; Frankl-Vilches, C.; Bakker, A.; Mayr, G.; Nikolaus, G.; Boerno, S. T.; Klages, S.; Timmermann, B.; Gahr, M. (2020). "An unbiased molecular approach using 3'UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life". Molecular Biology and Evolution: 143. doi:10.1093/molbev/msaa191.
Yonezawa, T.; Segawa, T.; Mori, H.; Campos, P. F.; Hongoh, Y.; Endo, H.; Akiyoshi, A.; Kohno, N.; Nishida, S.; Wu, J.; Jin, H.; Adachi, J.; Kishino, H.; Kurokawa, K.; Nogi, Y.; Tanabe, H.; Mukoyama, H.; Yoshida, K.; Rasoamiaramanana, A.; Yamagishi, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Yoshida, A.; Koike, H.; Akishinonomiya, F.; Willerslev, E.; Hasegawa, M. (2016-12-15). "Phylogenomics and Morphology of Extinct Paleognaths Reveal the Origin and Evolution of the Ratites". Current Biology. 27 (1): 68–77. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.10.029. PMID 27989673.
Claramunt, S.; Cracraft, J. (Dec 2015). "A new time tree reveals Earth history's imprint on the evolution of modern birds". Sci Adv. 1 (11): e1501005. Bibcode:2015SciA....1E1005C. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1501005. PMC 4730849. PMID 26824065.
Torres, C.R. et al. (2021) Bird neurocranial and body mass evolution across the end-Cretaceous mass extinction: The avian brain shape left other dinosaurs behind. Science Advances, Vol. 7, no. 31, eabg7099. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abg7099
Mindell & Brown (2005)
For a draft phylogeny of Neoaves that is based on a review of massive amounts of published sources, and probably rather close to "the real thing", see Mindell et al. (2005)
Mindell et al. (2005)
Braun, E.L. & Kimball, R.T. (2021) Data types and the phylogeny of Neoaves. Birds, 2(1), 1-22; https://doi.org/10.3390/birds2010001

Boyd, John (2007). "NEORNITHES: 46 Orders" (PDF). John Boyd's website. Retrieved 30 December 2017.

References

Claramunt, S.; Cracraft, J. (2015). "A new time tree reveals Earth history's imprint on the evolution of modern birds". Sci Adv. 1 (11): e1501005. Bibcode:2015SciA....1E1005C. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1501005. PMC 4730849. PMID 26824065.
Mindell, David P. & Brown, Joseph W. (2005): The Tree of Life Web Project - Neornithes. Version of 2005-DEC-14. Retrieved 2008-JAN-08.
Mindell, David P.; Brown, Joseph W. & Harshman, John (2005): The Tree of Life Web Project - Neoaves. Version of 2005-DEC-14. Retrieved 2008-JAN-08.

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