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Yoichiro Nambu (1921–) is a Japanese-born American physicist. He is famous for having proposed the "color charge" of quantum chromodynamics, for having done early work on spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics, and for having discovered that the dual resonance model could be explained as a quantum mechanical theory of strings. (Thus, he is accounted one of the founders of string theory.) He has won numerous honors and awards including the J. Robert Oppenheimer Prize, the U.S.'s National Medal of Science, Japan's Order of Culture, the Planck Medal, the Wolf Prize, the Franklin Medal, the Dirac Medal and the J. J. Sakurai Prize.

Nambu became a professor of physics at Osaka City University in 1950. He is now a professor emeritus at the University of Chicago.

The Nambu-Goto action in string theory is named after Nambu and Tetsuo Goto. Also, massless bosons arising in field theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are sometimes referred to as Nambu-Goldstone bosons.

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