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Struve function

In mathematics, Struve functions , are solutions y(x) of the non-homogenous Bessel's differential equation:

introduced by Hermann Struve (1882). The complex number α is the order of the Struve function, and is often an integer. The modified Struve functions Lα(x) are equal to −i.e.−iαπ/2Hα(ix).


Since this is a non-homogenous equation, solutions can be constructed from a single particular solution by adding the solutions of the homogeneous problem. In this case, the homogenous solutions are the Bessel functions, and the particular solution may be chosen as the corresponding Struve function.

Power series expansion

Struve functions, denoted as have the following power series form

where Γ(z) is the gamma function.

Integral form

Another definition of the Struve function, for values of α satisfying , is possible using an integral representation:

Asymptotic forms

For small x, the power series expansion is given above.

For large x, one obtains:

where Yα(x) is the Neumann function.


The Struve functions satisfy the following recurrence relations:

Relation to other functions

Struve functions of integer order can be expressed in terms of Weber functions En and vice versa: if n is a non-negative integer then

Struve functions of order n+1/2 (n an integer) can be expressed in terms of elementary functions. In particular if n is a non-negative integer then

where the right hand side is a spherical Bessel function.

Struve functions (of any order) can be expressed in terms of the generalized hypergeometric function 1F2 (which is not the Gauss hypergeometric function 2F1) :



* R.M. Aarts and Augustus J.E.M. Janssen (2003). "Approximation of the Struve function H1 occurring in impedance calculations". J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113 (5): 2635–2637. doi:10.1121/1.1564019. PMID 12765381.
* Abramowitz, Milton; Stegun, Irene A., eds. (1965), "Chapter 12", Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables, New York: Dover, pp. 496, MR0167642, ISBN 978-0486612720, http://www.math.sfu.ca/~cbm/aands/page_496.htm .
* Ivanov, A.B. (2001), "Struve function", in Hazewinkel, Michiel, Encyclopaedia of Mathematics, Springer, ISBN 978-1556080104, http://eom.springer.de/S/s090700.htm
* Paris, R. B. (2010), "Struve function", in Olver, Frank W. J.; Lozier, Daniel M.; Boisvert, Ronald F. et al., NIST Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521192255, http://dlmf.nist.gov/11
* Struve, H. (1882). "Beitrag zur Theorie der Diffraction an Fernröhren". Ann. Physik Chemie 17: 1008–1016. doi:10.1002/andp.18822531319.


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