Hellenica World

Larix occidentalis

Larix occidentalis , US Forest Service photo

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Classis: Pinopsida
Ordo: Pinales
Familia: Pinaceae
Genus: Larix
Species: Larix occidentalis

Name

Larix occidentalis Nutt. 1849

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Türkçe: Batı melezi

References

* N. Amer. Sylv. 3: 143 (1849)
* USDA, NRCS. 2006. The PLANTS Database, 6 March 2006 (http://plants.usda.gov).

Data compiled from various sources by Mark W. Skinner. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

* USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. [1]

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Western Larch (Larix occidentalis) is a species of larch native to the mountains of western North America, in Canada in southeastern British Columbia and southwestern Alberta, and in the United States in eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, northern Idaho and western Montana.

It is a large deciduous coniferous tree reaching 30-60 m tall, with a trunk up to 1.5 m diameter. The crown is narrow conic; the main branches are level to upswept, with the side branches often drooping. The shoots are dimorphic, with growth divided into long shoots (typically 10-50 cm long) and bearing several buds, and short shoots only 1-2 mm long with only a single bud. The leaves are needle-like, light green, 2-5 cm long, and very slender; they turn bright yellow in the fall, leaving the pale orange-brown shoots bare until the next spring.

The seed cones are ovoid-cylindric, 2-5 cm long, with 40-80 seed scales; each scale bearing an exserted 4-8 mm bract. The cones are red when immature, turning brown and the scales opening flat or reflexed to release the seeds when mature, 4–6 months after pollination. The old cones commonly remain on the tree for many years, turning dull gray-black.

It grows at 500-2,400 m altitude, and is very cold tolerant, able to survive winter temperatures down to about −50 °C. It only grows on well-drained soils, avoiding waterlogged ground.

The seeds are an important food for some birds, notably Pine Siskin, Common Redpoll and White-winged Crossbill.

Uses

The wood is tough and durable, but also flexible in thin strips, and is particularly valued for yacht building; wood used for this must be free of knots, and can only be obtained from old trees that were pruned when young to remove side branches. Small larch poles are widely used for rustic fencing.

Western Larch is used for the production of Venice turpentine.

The wood is highly prized as firewood in the Pacific Northwest where it is commonly called "Tamarack," although it is a different species than the Tamarack Larch. The wood burns with a sweet fragrance and a distinctive popping noise.

Indigenous peoples used to chew gum produced from the tree as well as eat the cambium and sap.[1]

References and external links

* Conifer Specialist Group (1998). Larix occidentalis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.
* Gymnosperm Database: Larix occidentalis
* Flora of North America: Larix occidentalis
* USDA Plants Profile: Larix occidentalis

1. ^ Turner, Nancy J. Food Plants of Interior First Peoples (Victoria: UBC Press, 1997) ISBN 0-7748-0606-0

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