Tropaeolum

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Brassicales
Familia: Tropaeolaceae
Genus: Tropaeolum
Species: T. adpressum - T. aduncum - T. albiflorum - T. argentinum - T. asplundii - T. atrocapillare - T. azureum - T. beuthii - T. bicolor - T. bimaculatum - T. bogotense - T. boliviense - T. brachyceras - T. brasiliense - T. brideanum - T. bridgesii - T. buchenaui - T. buchenauianum - T. calcaratum - T. calvum - T. capillare - T. carchense - T. chilense - T. chrysanthum - T. chymocarpus - T. ciliatum - T. cirrhipes - T. coccineum - T. cochabambae - T. concavum - T. concinneum - T. canariense - T. crenatiflorum - T. crenatum - T. cubio - T. curvirostre - T. cuspidatum - T. deckerianum - T. dentatifolium - T. denticualtum - T. digitatum - T. dipetalum - T. edule - T. elatum - T. elegans - T. elzae - T. emarginatum - T. equatoriense - T. ferreyrae - T. fintelmannii - T. flavipilum - T. floribundum - T. fulvum - T. funckii - T. gaertnerianum - T. garciae - T. glaucescens - T. glaucum - T. glaziovii - T. gracile - T. guatemalense - T. harlingii - T. hayneanum - T. hieronymii - T. hirsutum - T. hirtifolium - T. hjertingii - T. hookerianum - T. hortense - T. hughesae - T. huigrense - T. huynhii - T. hybridum - T. incisum - T. incrassatum - T. infundibularum - T. integrifolium - T. jilesii - T. karstenii - T. kerneisinum - T. killipii - T. kingii - T. klotzschii - T. kuntzeanum - T. lasseri - T. lechleri - T. lehmannii - T. leichtlinii - T. leonis - T. lepidum - T. leptoceras - T. leptophyllum - T. lindenii - T. linearifolium - T. lobbianum - T. lobbii - T. longiflorum - T. looseri - T. luteum - T. macrophyllum - T. maculatum - T. maculifolium - T. magnificum - T. majus - T. marginatum - T. mathewsii - T. menispermifolium - T. mexiae - T. meyeri - T. minimum - T. minus - T. moritzianum - T. morreanum - T. mucronatum - T. myriophyllum - T. nubigenum - T. nuptae-jucundae - T. olmosense - T. orinocense - T. orthoceras - T. oxalidanthum - T. paniculatum - T. papillosum - T. parviflorum - T. parvifolium - T. patagonicum - T. pellucidum - T. peltophorum - T. pendulum - T. pentagonum - T. pentaphyllum - T. peregrinum - T. pilosum - T. piltophorum - T. pinnatum - T. polyphyllum - T. popelari - T. porifolium - T. prostratum - T. pseudopubescens - T. pubescens - T. pulchellum - T. purpureum - T. quinatum - T. quinquelobum - T. rectangulum - T. reichianum - T. reineckeanum - T. repandum - T. rhizophorum - T. rhomboideum - T. sanctae-catharinae - T. schlimii - T. seemannii - T. septangulum - T. septemlobatum - T. sessilifolium - T. smithii - T. speciosum - T. steyermarkianum - T. stipulatum - T. suberosum - T. subincrassatum - T. tenellum - T. tenuirostre - T. tenuirostre - T. tomentosum - T. traceyae - T. trialatum - T. trialatum - T. tricolor - T. tricolori-brachyceras - T. trilobum - T. trilobum - T. tuberosum - T. umbellatum - T. unilobatum - T. vargasianum - T. venezuelae - T. venosum - T. violaceum - T. violaeflorum - T. wagnerianum - T. warmingianum - T. warscewiczii - T. weberbaueri - T. willinkii - T. yarrati -

Name

Tropaeolum L.

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Русский: Настурция, Капуцин

Tropaeolum (play /trɵˈpiː.ələm/),[1] commonly known as Nasturtium (play /næˈstɜrʃⁱəm/;[2] literally "nose-twister" or "nose-tweaker"), is a genus of roughly 80 species of annual and perennial herbaceous flowering plants and the only genus in the family Tropaeolaceae. It should not be confused with the Watercresses of the genus Nasturtium, of the Mustard family. The genus Tropaeolum, native to South and Central America, includes several very popular garden plants, the most commonly grown being T. majus, T. peregrinum and T. speciosum. The hardiest species is T. polyphyllum from Chile, the perennial roots of which can survive underground when air temperatures drop as low as -15°C (5°F).

They have showy, often intensely bright flowers (the intense color may pose problems in macrophotography)[citation needed], and rounded, peltate (shield-shaped) leaves with the petiole in the center. The flowers have five petals (sometimes more), a three-carpelled ovary, and a funnel-shaped nectar tube in the back.

Tropaeolum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Dot Moth and Garden Carpet. A very common "pest" found on Nasturtium in particular is the caterpillar of the Large White (Cabbage White) Butterfly.

The Nasturtiums receive their name from the fact that they produce an oil that is similar to that produced by Watercress (Nasturtium officinale), from the family Brassicaceae.


Cultivation and uses


In cultivation, most varieties of nasturtiums prefer to be grown in direct or indirect sunlight, with a few preferring partial shade.

The most common use of the nasturtium plant in cultivation is as an ornamental flower. It grows easily and prolifically, and is a self-seeding annual.
The flowers and leaves of the nasturtium plant.

All parts of the plant are edible. The flower has most often been consumed, making for an especially ornamental salad ingredient; it has a slightly peppery taste reminiscent of watercress, and is also used in stir fry. The unripe seed pods can be harvested and pickled with hot vinegar, to produce a condiment and garnish, sometimes used in place of capers, although the taste is strongly peppery. The mashua (T. tuberosum) produces an edible underground tuber that is a major food source in parts of the Andes.

Nasturtiums are also considered widely useful companion plants. They repel a great many cucurbit pests, like squash bugs, cucumber beetles, and several caterpillars. They have a similar range of benefits for brassica plants, especially broccoli and cauliflower. They also attract black fly aphids, and are sometimes planted in the hope of saving crops susceptible to them (as a trap crop). They may also attract beneficial predatory insects.

Taxonomy

Tropaeolum was previously placed in the family Tropaeolaceae along with two other genera, Magallan and Tropaeastrum. In 2000, a molecular study found Tropaeolum to be paraphyletic with respect to the other two genera, so they were transferred into Tropaeolum. Tropaeolaceae was thus rendered monogeneric.[3]

Species

Tropaeolum adpressum
Tropaeolum aduncum
Tropaeolum albiflorum
Tropaeolum argentinum
Tropaeolum asplundii
Tropaeolum atrocapillare
Tropaeolum azureum
Tropaeolum beuthii
Tropaeolum bicolor
Tropaeolum bimaculatum
Tropaeolum bogotense
Tropaeolum boliviense
Tropaeolum brachyceras
Tropaeolum brasiliense
Tropaeolum brideanum
Tropaeolum bridgesii
Tropaeolum buchenaui
Tropaeolum buchenauianum
Tropaeolum calcaratum
Tropaeolum calvum
Tropaeolum capillare
Tropaeolum carchense
Tropaeolum chilense
Tropaeolum chrysanthum
Tropaeolum chymocarpus
Tropaeolum ciliatum
Tropaeolum cirrhipes
Tropaeolum coccineum
Tropaeolum cochabambae
Tropaeolum concavum
Tropaeolum concinneum
Tropaeolum canariense
Tropaeolum crenatiflorum
Tropaeolum crenatum
Tropaeolum cubio
Tropaeolum curvirostre
Tropaeolum cuspidatum
Tropaeolum deckerianum
Tropaeolum dentatifolium
Tropaeolum denticualtum
Tropaeolum digitatum
Tropaeolum dipetalum
Tropaeolum edule
Tropaeolum elatum
Tropaeolum elegans
Tropaeolum elzae
Tropaeolum emarginatum
Tropaeolum equatoriense
Tropaeolum ferreyrae
Tropaeolum fintelmannii
Tropaeolum flavipilum
Tropaeolum floribundum
Tropaeolum fulvum
Tropaeolum funckii
Tropaeolum gaertnerianum
Tropaeolum garciae
Tropaeolum glaucescens
Tropaeolum glaucum
Tropaeolum glaziovii
Tropaeolum gracile
Tropaeolum guatemalense
Tropaeolum harlingii
Tropaeolum hayneanum
Tropaeolum hieronymii
Tropaeolum hirsutum
Tropaeolum hirtifolium
Tropaeolum hjertingii
Tropaeolum hookerianum
Tropaeolum hortense
Tropaeolum hughesae
Tropaeolum huigrense
Tropaeolum huynhii
Tropaeolum hybridum
Tropaeolum incisum
Tropaeolum incrassatum
Tropaeolum infundibularum
Tropaeolum integrifolium
Tropaeolum jilesii
Tropaeolum karstenii
Tropaeolum kerneisinum
Tropaeolum killipii
Tropaeolum kingii
Tropaeolum klotzschii
Tropaeolum kuntzeanum
Tropaeolum lasseri
Tropaeolum lechleri
Tropaeolum lehmannii
Tropaeolum leichtlinii
Tropaeolum leonis
Tropaeolum lepidum
Tropaeolum leptoceras
Tropaeolum leptophyllum
Tropaeolum lindenii
Tropaeolum linearifolium
Tropaeolum lobbianum
Tropaeolum lobbii
Tropaeolum longiflorum
Tropaeolum longifolium
Tropaeolum looseri
Tropaeolum luteum
Tropaeolum macrophyllum
Tropaeolum macrophyllum
Tropaeolum maculatum
Tropaeolum maculifolium
Tropaeolum magnificum
Tropaeolum majus
Tropaeolum marginatum
Tropaeolum mathewsii
Tropaeolum menispermifolium
Tropaeolum mexiae
Tropaeolum meyeri
Tropaeolum minimum
Tropaeolum minus
Tropaeolum moritzianum
Tropaeolum morreanum
Tropaeolum mucronatum
Tropaeolum myriophyllum
Tropaeolum nubigenum
Tropaeolum nuptae-jucundae
Tropaeolum olmosense
Tropaeolum orinocense
Tropaeolum orthoceras
Tropaeolum oxalidanthum
Tropaeolum paniculatum
Tropaeolum papillosum
Tropaeolum parviflorum
Tropaeolum parvifolium
Tropaeolum patagonicum
Tropaeolum pellucidum
Tropaeolum peltophorum
Tropaeolum pendulum
Tropaeolum pentagonum
Tropaeolum pentaphyllum
Tropaeolum peregrinum
Tropaeolum pilosum
Tropaeolum piltophorum
Tropaeolum pinnatum
Tropaeolum polyphyllum
Tropaeolum popelari
Tropaeolum porifolium
Tropaeolum prostratum
Tropaeolum pseudopubescens
Tropaeolum pubescens
Tropaeolum pulchellum
Tropaeolum purpureum
Tropaeolum quinatum
Tropaeolum quinquelobum
Tropaeolum rectangulum
Tropaeolum reichianum
Tropaeolum reineckeanum
Tropaeolum repandum
Tropaeolum rhizophorum
Tropaeolum rhomboideum
Tropaeolum sanctae-catharinae
Tropaeolum schlimii
Tropaeolum seemannii
Tropaeolum septangulum
Tropaeolum septemlobatum
Tropaeolum sessilifolium
Tropaeolum smithii
Tropaeolum speciosum
Tropaeolum steyermarkianum
Tropaeolum stipulatum
Tropaeolum suberosum
Tropaeolum subincrassatum
Tropaeolum tenellum
Tropaeolum tenuirostre
Tropaeolum tenuirostre
Tropaeolum tomentosum
Tropaeolum traceyae
Tropaeolum trialatum
Tropaeolum trialatum
Tropaeolum tricolor
Tropaeolum tricolori-brachyceras
Tropaeolum trilobum
Tropaeolum trilobum
Tropaeolum tuberosum
Tropaeolum umbellatum
Tropaeolum unilobatum
Tropaeolum vargasianum
Tropaeolum venezuelae
Tropaeolum venosum
Tropaeolum violaceum
Tropaeolum violaeflorum
Tropaeolum wagnerianum
Tropaeolum warmingianum
Tropaeolum warscewiczii
Tropaeolum weberbaueri
Tropaeolum willinkii
Tropaeolum yarrati


References

^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607; "Tropaeolum". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
^ "nasturtium". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
^ Andersson, Lennart and Andersson, Stephan (2000). "A molecular phylogeny of Tropaeolaceae and its systematic implications". Taxon (Taxon, Vol. 49, No. 4) 49 (4): 721–736. doi:10.2307/1223973. JSTOR 1223973.

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