Spiraea

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Rosales
Familia: Rosaceae
Subfamilia: Spiraeoideae
Genus: Spiraea
Species: S. affinis - S. alaskaense - S. alba - S. albiflora - S. alpina - S. arcuata - S. arguta - S. bella - S. betulifolia - S. blumei - S. canescens - S. cantoniensis - S. chamaedryfolia - S. chinensis - S. cinerea - S. corymbosa - S. crenata - S. dasyantha - S. decumbens - S. douglasii - S. flexuosa - S. formosana - S. foxii - S. fritschiana - S. gemmata - S. henryi - S. hypericifolia - S. japonica - S. lucida - S. media - S. micrantha - S. miyabei - S. mollifolia - S. mongolica - S. myrtilloides - S. nipponica - S. pikoviensis - S. prunifolia - S. pubescens - S. rosthornii - S. salicifolia - S. sanssouciana - S. stevenii - S. thunbergii - S. tomentosa - S. trichocarpa - S. trilobata - S. vacciniifolia - S. vanhouttei - S. veitchii - S. virginiana - S. wilsonii

Name

* Spiraea L.

Reference

* Spiraea Report on ITIS

Spiraea (pronounced /spaɪˈriː.ə/),[1] or meadowsweet, is a genus of about 80-100 species of shrubs in the family Rosaceae, subfamily Spiraeoideae. They are native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere, with the greatest diversity in eastern Asia.

Spiraea species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Brown-tail, Emperor Moth, Grey Dagger, Hypercompe indecisa and Setaceous Hebrew Character.

The genus was formerly treated as also containing the herbaceous species now segregated into the genera Filipendula and Aruncus; recent genetic evidence has shown that Filipendula is only distantly related to Spiraea, belonging in the subfamily Rosoideae.

Uses and toxicity

Spiraea (also known as Meadowsweet) is too woody to be used as an edible plant, but has a long history of medicinal use by Native Americans as an herbal tea. The entire plant contains methyl salicylate and other salicylates, compounds with similar medicinal properties of aspirin. Unlike other salicylate-bearing plants such as willow or poplar, meadowsweet's content of these analgesic compounds remain consistent from plant to plant. Unlike aspirin, meadowsweet is effective in treating stomach disorders in minute amounts. The salicylates in this plant are a highly effective analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and fever reducer, without the side effects attributed to aspirin. Compounds in this plant also contain bacteriostatic properties, and the tea of this plant was used by the Blackfeet Indians as an enema and vagina douche to treat infections of the bowels and vaginal area. [2]

In pure form, methyl salicylate is toxic, especially when taken internally. The lowest published lethal dose is 101 mg/kg body weight in adult humans.[3] It has proven fatal to small children in doses as little as 4 mL.[4] A 17 year-old cross-country runner at Notre Dame Academy on Staten Island, died April 3, 2007, after her body absorbed high levels of methyl salicylate through excessive use of topical muscle-pain relief products.[5] Methyl Salicylate is used as a rubefacient in deep heating liniments, and in small amounts as a flavoring agent in chewing gums and other products at no more than 0.04%.[4]

Species

* Spiraea alba (Narrow-leaved Meadowsweet)
* Spiraea amoena
* Spiraea arcuata
* Spiraea baldschuanica
* Spiraea bella
* Spiraea betulifolia
* Spiraea blumei
* Spiraea calcicola
* Spiraea cana
* Spiraea canescens
* Spiraea cantoniensis
* Spiraea chamaedryfolia
* Spiraea crenata
* Spiraea decumbens
* Spiraea densiflora
* Spiraea douglasii (Hardhack)
* Spiraea gemmata
* Spiraea henryi
* Spiraea hypericifolia
* Spiraea japonica (Japanese Spiraea)
* Spiraea latifolia (Broad-leaved meadowsweet)
* Spiraea lobata
* Spiraea longigemmis
* Spiraea media
* Spiraea micrantha
* Spiraea miyabei
* Spiraea mollifolia
* Spiraea nervosa
* Spiraea nipponica
* Spiraea prunifolia (Bridalwreath Spiraea)
* Spiraea pubescens
* Spiraea rosthornii
* Spiraea salicifolia (Bridewort Spiraea)
* Spiraea sargentiana
* Spiraea thunbergii
* Spiraea tomentosa (Steeplebush)
* Spiraea trichocarpa
* Spiraea trilobata
* Spiraea veitchii
* Spiraea virginiana
* Spiraea wilsonii
* Spiraea yunnanensis

Hybrids

There are also numerous named hybrids, some occurring in the wild, others bred in gardens; some are important ornamental plants:

* Spiraea × arguta (S. × multiflora × S. thunbergii)
* Spiraea × billardii (S. douglasii × S. salicifolia)
* Spiraea × blanda (S. nervosa × S. cantoniensis)
* Spiraea × brachybotrys (S. canescens × S. douglasii)
* Spiraea × bumalda (S. japonica × S. albiflora)
* Spiraea × cinerea (S. hypericifolia × S. cana)
* Spiraea × conspicua (S. japonica × S. latifolia)
* Spiraea × fontenaysii (S. canescens × S. salicifolia)
* Spiraea × foxii (S. japonica × S. betulifolia)
* Spiraea × gieseleriana (S. cana × S. chamaedryfolia)
* Spiraea × macrothyrsa (S. douglasii × S. latifolia)
* Spiraea × multiflora (S. crenata × S. hypericifolia)
* Spiraea × notha (S. betulifolia × S. latifolia)
* Spiraea × nudiflora (S. chamaedryfolia × S. bella)
* Spiraea × pikoviensis (S. crenata × S. media)
* Spiraea × pyramidata (S. betulifolia × S. douglasii)
* Spiraea × revirescens (S. amoena × S. japonica)
* Spiraea × sanssouciana (S. japonica × S. douglasii)
* Spiraea × schinabeckii (S. chamaedryfolia × S. trilobata)
* Spiraea × semperflorens (S. japonica × S. salicifolia)
* Spiraea × vanhouttei (S. trilobata × S. cantoniensis)
* Spiraea × watsoniana (S. douglasii × S. densiflora)
References

1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
2. ^ Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West, Gregory L. Tilford, ISBN 0-87842-359-1
3. ^ Safety data for methyl salicylate, Physical & Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University
4. ^ a b Wintergreen at Drugs.com
5. ^ "Muscle-Pain Reliever Is Blamed For Staten Island Runner’s Death". New York Times. 2007-06-10. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/10/nyregion/10cream.html?_r=1&ref=nyregion&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2007-06-09.

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