Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Malpighiales
Familia: Rhizophoraceae
Tribus: Rhizophoreae
Genus: Rhizophora
Species: R. annamalayana - R. apiculata - R. harrisonii - R. lamarckii - R. mangle - R. mucronata - R. racemosa - R. samoensis - R. stylosa


Rhizophora L.

Rhizophora is a genus of tropical mangrove trees, sometimes collectively called true mangroves. The most notable species is the Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) but some other species and a few natural hybrids are known. Rhizophora species generally live in intertidal zones which are indundated daily by the ocean. They exhibit a number of adaptations to this environment, including stilt-roots that elevate the plants above the water and allow them to respire oxygen even while their lower roots are submerged, and a cytological molecular "pump" mechanism that allows them to remove excess salts from their cells. The generic name is derived from the Greek words ριζα (rhiza), meaning "root," and φορος (phoros), meaning "bearing," referring to the stilt-roots.[2]

The beetle Poecilips fallax is a common pest of these trees.

The Red Mangrove is the state tree of Delta Amacuro in Venezuela; a dark brown dye can be produced from it, which is used in Tongan ngatu cloth production.

Selected species

* Rhizophora apiculata Blume – bakauan lalaki (Philippines) bakau minyak
* Rhizophora harrisonii Leechm.
* Rhizophora mangle L. – Red Mangrove, tongo (Tonga)
* Rhizophora mucronata Lam.
* Rhizophora racemosa G.Mey.
* Rhizophora samoensis (Hochr.) Salvoza
* Rhizophora stylosa Griff. – Spotted Mangrove, bakauan bato (Philippines)[3]


* Rhizophora × annamalayana Kathiresan (R. apiculata × R. mucronata)
* Rhizophora × lamarckii Montrouz. (R. apiculata × R. stylosa)[3]
* Rhizophora × selala (Salvoza) P.B.Tomlinson (R. mangle × R. stylosa)

Formerly placed here

* Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco (as R. corniculata L.)
* Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Savigny (as R. gymnorhiza L.)
* Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. ex Griff. (as R. parviflora Roxb.)
* Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poir. (as R. sexangula Lour.)
* Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B.Rob. (as R. tagal Perr.)[3]


1. ^ a b "Genus: Rhizophora L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-05-12. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?10396. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
2. ^ Austin, Daniel F. (2004). Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press. pp. 964. ISBN 9780849323324. http://books.google.com/books?id=eS7lX_rC3GEC&.
3. ^ a b c "GRIN Species Records of Rhizophora". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?10396. Retrieved 2010-11-27.

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