Rhamnaceae

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Rosales
Familia: Rhamnaceae
Genera: Adolphia - Alphitonia - Alvimiantha - Ampelozizyphus - Auerodendron - Bathiorhamnus - Berchemia - Berchemiella - Blackallia - Ceanothus - Chaydaia - Colletia - Colubrina - Condalia - Crumenaria - Cryptandra - Discaria - Doerpfeldia - Emmenosperma - Gouania - Helinus - Hovenia - Hybosperma - Karwinskia - Kentrothamnus - Krugiodendron - Lasiodiscus - Maesopsis - Nesiota - Noltea - Paliurus - Phylica - Pleuranthodes - Pomaderris - Reissekia - Retanilla - Reynosia - Rhamnella - Rhamnidium - Rhamnus - Sageretia - Schistocarpaea - Scutia - Siegfriedia - Smythea - Spyridium - Talguenea - Trevoa - Trymalium - Ventilago - Ziziphus

Name

Rhamnaceae Durande

Synonyms

Ziziphaceae

Vernacular names
Internationalization
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Trollheggfamilien
Русский: Крушиновые
Svenska: Brakvedsväxter
Türkçe: Cehrigiller
Українська: Крушинові


References

* Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 6, May 2005. [1]
* Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Vascular Plant Families and Genera[2]

Rhamnaceae, the Buckthorn family, is a large family of flowering plants, mostly trees, shrubs and some vines.

The family contains 50-60 genera and approximately 870-900 species. The Rhamnaceae have a worldwide distribution, but are more common in the subtropical and tropical regions. The earliest fossil evidence of Rhamnaceae is from the Eocene.

The simple leaves can be either alternate and spiraling, or opposite. Stipules are present. These leaves are modified into spines in many genera, in some (e.g. Paliurus spina-christi and Colletia cruciata) spectacularly so. Colletia stands out by having two axillary buds instead of one, one developing into a thorn, the other one into a shoot.
Flowers of Ceanothus cuneatus

The flowers are radially symmetrical. There are 5 (sometimes 4) separate sepals and 5 (sometimes 4 or none) separate petals. The petals may be white, yellowish, greenish, pink or blue, and are small and inconspicuous in most genera, though in some (e.g. Ceanothus) the dense clusters of flowers are conspicuous. The 5 or 4 stamens are isomerous with the petals (i.e. one stamen opposite each petal). The ovary is superior, with 2 or 3 ovules (or one by abortion).

The fruits are mostly berries, fleshy drupes or nuts. Some are adapted to wind carriage, but most are dispersed by mammals and birds. Chinese jujube is the fruit of the jujube tree (Ziziphus zizyphus) and is a major fruit in China.

The American genus Ceanothus, which has several showy ornamental species, has nitrogen-fixing root nodules.

Economic uses of the Rhamnaceae are chiefly as ornamental plants and as the source of many brilliant green and yellow dyes. The wood of Rhamnus was also the most favoured species to make charcoal for use in gunpowder before the development of modern propellants.

Genera

Tribe Ampelozizipheae

* Ampelozizyphus Ducke

Tribe Bathiorhamneae

* Bathiorhamnus Capuron

Tribe Colletieae

* Adolphia Meisn.
* Colletia Comm. ex Juss.
* Discaria Hook.
* Kentrothamnus Suess. & Overkott
* Retanilla (DC.) Brongn.
* Trevoa Miers ex Hook.

Tribe Doerpfeldieae

* Doerpfeldia Urb.

Tribe Gouanieae

* Alvimiantha Grey-Wilson
* Crumenaria Mart.
* Gouania Jacq.
* Helinus E.Mey. ex Endl.
* Johnstonia Tortosa
* Reissekia Endl.

Tribe Maesopsideae

* Maesopsis Engl.

Tribe Paliurieae

* Hovenia Thunb.
* Paliurus Mill.
* Ziziphus Mill.

Tribe Phyliceae

* Nesiota† Hook.f.
* Noltea Rchb.
* Phylica L.

Tribe Pomaderreae

* Blackallia C.A.Gardner
* Cryptandra Sm.
* Pomaderris Labill.
* Siegfriedia C.A.Gardner
* Spyridium Fenzl
* Trymalium Fenzl

Tribe Rhamneae

* Auerodendron Urb.
* Berchemia Neck. ex DC.
* Berchemiella Nakai
* Chaydaia Pit.
* Condalia Cav.
* Frangula Mill.
* Karwinskia Zucc.
* Krugiodendron Urb.
* Reynosia Griseb.
* Rhamnella Miq.
* Rhamnidium Reissek
* Rhamnus L.
* Sageretia Brongn.
* Scutia (Comm. ex DC.) Brongn.

Tribe Ventilagineae

* Smythea Seem.
* Ventilago Gaertn.

Incertae sedis

* Alphitonia Endl.
* Ceanothus L.
* Colubrina Rich. ex Brongn.
* Emmenosperma F.Muell.
* Granitites Rye[3]
* Lasiodiscus Hook.f.
* Schistocarpaea F.Muell.[4]

References

1. ^ Walter S. Judd and Richard G. Olmstead (2004). "A survey of tricolpate (eudicot) phylogenetic relationships". American Journal of Botany 91: 1627–1644. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1627. (full text )
2. ^ "Family: Rhamnaceae Juss., nom. cons.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-01-17. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/family.pl?953. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
3. ^ "Granitites". FloraBase. Department of Environment and Conservation, Government of Western Australia. http://florabase.dec.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/21733.
4. ^ "GRIN Genera of Rhamnaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?953. Retrieved 2011-01-29.

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