Nyctaginaceae

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Caryophyllales
Familia: Nyctaginaceae
Genera: Abronia - Acleisanthes - Allionia - Allioniella - Ammocodon - Andradea - Anulocaulis - Belemia - Boerhavia - Boldoa - Bougainvillea - Caribea - Cephalotomandra - Colignonia - Commicarpus - Cryptocarpus - Cuscatlania - Cyphomeris - Grajalesia - Guapira - Hesperonia - Izabalaea - Leucaster - Mirabilis - Neea - Neeopsis - Nyctaginia - Okenia - Oxybaphus - Phaeoptilum - Pisonia - Pisoniella - Quamoclidion - Ramisia - Reichenbachia - Salpianthus - Selinocarpus - Tripterocalyx

Name

Nyctaginaceae Juss.

References

* Genera Plantarum 90. 1789.
* Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Vascular Plant Families and Genera[1]

Synonyms

* Allioniaceae Horaninow
* Bougainvilleaceae J. Agardh
* Mirabilidaceae W. Oliver
* Pisoniaceae J. Agardh

Vernacular names

Nyctaginaceae, the Four O'Clock Family, is a family of around 33 genera and 290 species of flowering plants, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, with a few representatives in temperate regions. The family has a unique fruit type, called an "anthocarp", and many genera have extremely large (>100 µm) pollen grains.

The family has been almost universally recognized by plant taxonomists. The APG II system (2003; unchanged from the APG system of 1998), assigns it to the order Caryophyllales in the clade core eudicots.

A phylogenetic study by Levin has justified the combination of Selinocarpus and Ammocodon into the genus Acleisanthes. The genus Izabalea is now considered a synonym of Agonandra, a genus in Opiliaceae. A more recent study by Douglas and Manos clarified the relationships among almost all of the genera in the family and demonstrated that a substantial diversification of herbaceous genera has occurred in arid North America. Many genera of Nyctaginaceae possess unusual characters. Notable examples include sticky bands on the stems between the nodes, cleistogamous flowers (which self-pollinate without opening), or gypsophily, the ability to grow on soils with a high concentration of gypsum.

Genera

Tribe Boldoeae

* Boldoa Cav. ex Lag.
* Cryptocarpus Kunth
* Salpianthus Humb. & Bonpl.[2]

Tribe Bougainvilleeae

* Belemia Pires
* Bougainvillea Comm. ex Juss.
* Phaeoptilum Radlk.[3]

Tribe Caribeeae

* Caribea[4]

Tribe Colignonieae

* Colignonia[5]

Tribe Nyctagineae

* Abronia Juss.
* Acleisanthes A.Gray
* Allionia L.
* Anulocaulis Standl.
* Boerhavia L.
* Commicarpus Standl.
* Cuscatlania Standl.
* Cyphomeris Standl.
* Mirabilis L.
* Nyctaginia Choisy
* Okenia Schlecht. & Cham.
* Tripterocalyx (Torr.) Hook.[6]

Tribe Leucastereae

* Andradea Allemão
* Leucaster Choisy
* Ramisia Glaz. ex Baill.
* Reichenbachia Spreng.[7]

Tribe Pisonieae

* Cephalotomandra H.Karst. & Triana
* Grajalesia Miranda
* Guapira Aubl.
* Neea Ruiz & Pav.
* Neeopsis Lundell
* Pisonia L.
* Pisoniella (Heimerl) Standl.[8]


Uses

The family contains one food crop, the mauka (Mirabilis extensa), a root vegetable of minor local importance in the Andes. Garden Four-O'Clocks Mirabilis jalapa species are grown as ornamental plants, as are species of Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea glabra, B. spectabilis, and numerous hybrids), Bougainvillea and Abronia are commonly cultivated in warmer regions.

References


1. ^ "Family: Nyctaginaceae Juss., nom. cons.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-01-17. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/family.pl?777. Retrieved 2010-10-18.
2. ^ "GRIN Genera of Nyctaginaceae tribe Boldoeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2700. Retrieved 2010-10-18.
3. ^ "GRIN Genera of Nyctaginaceae tribe Bougainvilleeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2696. Retrieved 2010-10-18.
4. ^ "GRIN Genera of Nyctaginaceae tribe Caribeeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2698. Retrieved 2010-10-18.
5. ^ "GRIN Genera of Nyctaginaceae tribe Colignonieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2697. Retrieved 2010-10-18.
6. ^ "GRIN Genera of Nyctaginaceae tribe Nyctagineae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2694. Retrieved 2010-10-18.
7. ^ "GRIN Genera of Nyctaginaceae tribe Leucastereae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2699. Retrieved 2010-10-18.
8. ^ "GRIN Genera of Nyctaginaceae tribe Pisonieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?2695. Retrieved 2010-10-18.

* Nyctaginaceae in L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards), The families of flowering plants.
* Flora of North America: Nyctaginaceae
* NCBI Taxonomy Browser
* links at CSDL
* International Plant Names Index

* Levin, 2000, Phylogenetic relationships within Nyctaginaceae tribe Nyctagineae: Evidence from nuclear and chloroplast genomes. Systematic Botany 24(4) 738-750. (Subscription req.)
* Douglas, NA and Manos, PS. 2007. Molecular phylogeny of Nyctaginaceae: taxonomy, biogeography, and characters associated with a radiation of xerophytic genera in North America. American Journal of Botany 94(5) 856-872.

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