Grevilleoideae

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Proteales
Familia: Proteaceae
Subfamilia: Grevilleoideae
Tribus: Banksieae - Embothrieae - Grevilleeae - Helicieae - Knightieae - Macadamieae - Oriteae

Name

Grevilleoideae Engl., 1888

Synonyms

Grevilloideae Engl., 1888

References

* H.G.A. Engler & K.A.E. Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(1): 128 (1888)

A subfamily of 7 tribes, 44 genera and c. 950 species.

Grevilleoideae is a subfamily of the Proteaceae family of flowering plants. Mainly restricted to the southern hemisphere, it contains around 44 genera and about 950 species. Genera include Banksia, Grevillea and Macadamia.

Description

The Grevilleoideae grow as trees, shrubs or subshrubs. They are highly variable, making it impossible to provide a simple, diagnostic identification key for the subfamily. One common and fairly diagnostic character is the occurrence of flowers in pairs that share a common bract. However, a few Grevilleoideae taxa do not have this property, having solitary flowers or inflorescences of unpaired flowers. In most taxa the flowers occur in densely packed heads or spikes, and the fruit is a follicle.
Distribution and habitat

Grevilleoideae are mainly a southern hemisphere family. The main centre of diversity is Australia, with around 700 of 950 species occurring there, and South America also contains taxa. However, Grevilleoideae is barely present in Africa; almost all of the Proteaceae taxa there belong to the subfamily Proteoideae.[1] The Brabejum tree of Cape Town is the exception, and the only Grevilleoid in Africa.
Taxonomy

The framework for classification of the Proteaceae was laid by L. A. S. Johnson and Barbara Briggs in their 1975 monograph "On the Proteaceae: the evolution and classification of a southern family".[2] Their classification has been refined somewhat over the ensuing three decades, most notably by Peter Weston and Nigel Barker in 2006. Grevilleoideae is now considered one of five subfamilies of Proteaceae. The placement and circumscription of Grevilleoideae according to Weston and Barker can be summarised as follows:[3]

Family Proteaceae

Subfamily Bellendenoideae (1 genus)
Subfamily Persoonioideae (2 tribes, 5 genera)
Subfamily Symphionematoideae (2 genera)
Subfamily Proteoideae (4 tribes, 5 subtribes, 25 genera)
Subfamily Grevilleoideae

incertae sedis

Sphalmium — Carnarvonia

Tribe Roupaleae

incertae sedis

Megahertzia — Knightia — Eucarpha — Triunia

Subtribe Roupalinae

Roupala — Neorites — Orites

Subtribe Lambertiinae

Lambertia — Xylomelum

Subtribe Heliciinae

Helicia — Hollandaea

Subtribe Floydiinae

Darlingia — Floydia

Tribe Banksieae

Subtribe Musgraveinae

Musgravea — Austromuellera

Subtribe Banksiinae

Banksia — Dryandra

Tribe Embothrieae

Subtribe Lomatiinae

Lomatia

Subtribe Embothriinae

Embothrium — Oreocallis — Alloxylon — Telopea

Subtribe Stenocarpinae

Stenocarpus — Strangea

Subtribe Hakeinae

Opisthiolepis — Buckinghamia — Hakea — Grevillea — Finschia

Tribe Macadamieae

Subtribe Macadamiinae

Macadamia — Panopsis — Brabejum

Subtribe Malagasiinae

Malagasia — Catalepidia

Subtribe Virotiinae

Virotia — Athertonia — Heliciopsis

Subtribe Gevuininae

Cardwellia — Sleumerodendron — Euplassa — Gevuina — Bleasdalea — Hicksbeachia — Kermadecia — Turrillia

Uses

Many Grevilleoideae species are cultivated by the nursery industry, as barrier plants and for their prominent and distinctive flowers and foliage. Some species are of importance to the cut flower industry, especially some Banksia and Dryandra species. Two species of the genus Macadamia and the Chilean species Gevuina avellana (Chilean hazel) are grown commercially for edible nuts. Chilean hazel has an acceptable frost tolerance.
References

^ Orchard, Anthony E. (ed.). "Proteaceae". Flora of Australia, Volume 16: Elaeagnaceae, Proteaceae 1. Melbourne: Australian Biological Resources Study / CSIRO Publishing.
^ L. A. S. Johnson and Briggs, B. G. (1975). "On the Proteaceae: the evolution and classification of a southern family". Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Botany 70 (2): 83–182. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1975.tb01644.x.
^ Weston, Peter H.; Barker, Nigel P. (2006). "A new suprageneric classification of the Proteaceae, with an annotated checklist of genera". Telopea 11 (3): 314–344.

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