Gaillardia

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Asterales
Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Helenieae
Genus: Gaillardia
Species: G. aestivalis - G. amblyodon - G. aristata - G. x grandiflora - G. pulchella - G. spathulata

Name

Gaillardia Foug.

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Deutsch: Kokardenblumen
English: Blanket flower

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Gaillardia (pronounced /ɡeɪˈlɑrdiə/),[2] the Blanket flowers,[3] is a genus of drought-tolerant annual and perennial plants from the sunflower family (Asteraceae), native to North and South America. It was named after M. Gaillard de Charentonneau, an 18th-century French magistrate who was a patron of botany. The common name refers to the inflorescence's resemblance to brightly patterned blankets made by native Americans.

Description

These plants form wiry, branched stems with lanceolate to linear basal leaves. The plant grows to 1+1⁄2 to 2 ft (46 to 61 cm) tall, with bright daisy-like single color and bi-color blooms in shades from buff to red to brown. The flowers bloom in the summer. There are more than two dozen known species of Gaillardia.

They will grow under very harsh and dry conditions, forming mounds 8–18 inches (20–46 cm) high, and will even bloom in sand along a seashore.

Ecology

Gaillardia species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species including Schinia bina (which has been recorded on G. pulchella), Schinia masoni (which feeds exclusively on G. aristata) and Schinia volupia (which feeds exclusively on G. pulchella).

Species

North America

* Gaillardia aestivalis (Walter) H.Rock – Lanceleaf Blanketflower
o Gaillardia aestivalis var. aestivalis – Lanceleaf Blanketflower
o Gaillardia aestivalis var. flavovirens (C.Mohr) Cronquist – Lanceleaf Blanketflower
o Gaillardia aestivalis var. winkleri (Cory) B.L.Turner – Winkler's Blanketflower
* Gaillardia amblyodon J.Gay – Maroon Blanketflower
* Gaillardia aristata Pursh – Common gaillardia
* Gaillardia arizonica A.Gray – Arizona Blanketflower
o Gaillardia arizonica var. arizonica – Arizona Blanketflower
o Gaillardia arizonica var. pringlei – Pringle's Blanketflower
* Gaillardia coahuilensis B.L.Turner – Bandanna Daisy
* Gaillardia flava – Yellow Blanketflower
* Gaillardia multiceps Greene – Onion Blanketflower
o Gaillardia multiceps var. microcephala – Onion Blanketflower
o Gaillardia multiceps var. multiceps – Onion Blanketflower
* Gaillardia parryi Greene – Parry's Blanketflower
* Gaillardia pinnatifida Torr. – Red Dome Blanketflower
o Gaillardia pinnatifida var. linearis – Red Dome Blanketflower
o Gaillardia pinnatifida var. pinnatifida – Red Dome Blanketflower
* Gaillardia pulchella Foug. – Firewheel
o Gaillardia pulchella var. australis – Firewheel
o Gaillardia pulchella var. picta (Sweet) A.Gray – Firewheel
o Gaillardia pulchella var. pulchella – Firewheel
* Gaillardia spathulata A.Gray – Western Blanketflower
* Gaillardia suavis (A.Gray & Engelm.) Britton & Rusby – Perfumeballs[4][3]

South America

* Gaillardia cabrerae (Lihue Calel, Argentina)
* Gaillardia megapotamica (Spreng.) Baker[4] – Boton De Oro
o Gaillardia megapotamica var. radiata (San Luis, Argentina)
o Gaillardia megapotamica var. scabiosoides
* Gaillardia tontalensis (San Juan Province, Argentina)


Hybrids

* Gaillardia × grandiflora hort. ex Van Houtte [G. aristata × G. pulchella][4]


Formerly placed here

* Helenium amarum (Raf.) H.Rock var. amarum (as G. amara Raf.)
* Tetraneuris acaulis (Pursh) Greene var. acaulis (as G. acaulis Pursh)[4]

References


Notes

1. ^ a b "Genus: Gaillardia Foug.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1998-09-22. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?4796. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
3. ^ a b "Gaillardia". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=37395. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
4. ^ a b c d "GRIN Species Records of Gaillardia". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?4796. Retrieved 2011-02-10.

General references

1. Susan Fry Biddulph (1944). "A revision of the genus Gaillardia". Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash. 13: 195–256.

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