Convolvulaceae

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Solanales
Familia: Convolvulaceae
Subfamilia: Convolvuloideae - Humbertioideae

Genera: Aniseia - Argyreia - Astripomoea - Blinkworthia - Bonamia - Breweria - Calycobolus - Calystegia - Cardiochlamys - Cladistigma - Convolvulus - Cordisepalum - Cressa - Cuscuta - Decalobanthus - Dichondra - Dicranostyles - Dinetus - Dipteropeltis - Ericybe - Evolvulus - Falckia - Hewittia - Hildebrandtia - Hyalocystis - Ipomoea - Iseia - Itzaea - Jacquemontia - Lepistemon - Lepistemonopsis - Lysiostyles - Maripa - Merremia - Metaporana - Nephrophyllum - Neuropeltis - Neuropeltopsis - Odonellia - Operculina - Paralepistemon - Pentacrostigma - Pharbitis - Polymeria - Porana - Poranopsis - Rapona - Rivea - Sabaudiella - Seddera - Stictocardia - Stylisma - Tetralocularia - Tridynamia - Turbina - Wilsonia - Xenostegia

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Català: Convolvulàcia
Dansk: Snerle-familien
Deutsch: Windengewächse
Esperanto: Konvolvulacoj
Français: Convolvulacées
日本語: ヒルガオ科
Lietuvių: Vijokliniai
Nedersaksisch: Wiendefemilie
Nederlands: Windefamilie
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Vindelfamilien
Polski: Powojowate
Русский: Вьюнковые
Suomi: Kiertokasvit
Svenska: Vindeväxter
Türkçe: Kahkaha çiçeğigiller
中文: 旋花科
Bân-lâm-gú: Soân-hoe-kho

The Convolvulaceae, known commonly as the bindweed or morning glory family, is a group of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but also trees, shrubs and herbs.

Description

They can be recognized by their funnel-shaped radially symmetrical corolla; the floral formula for the family has 5 sepals, 5 fused petals, 5 epipetalous stamens (stamens fused to the petals), and a 2 part syncarpous and superior gynoecium. The stem of these plants is usually winding, hence its Latin name (convolvere = to wind). The leaves are simple and alternate, without stipules. The fruit can be a capsule, berry, or nut, all containing only two seeds per one locule (one ovule/ovary).

The leaves and starchy tuberous roots of some species are used as foodstuffs (e.g. sweet potato and water spinach), and the seeds are exploited for their medicinal value as purgatives. Some species contain ergoline alkaloids that are likely responsible for the use of these species as ingredients in psychedelic drugs (e.g. ololiuhqui). The presence of ergolines in some species of this family is due to infection by fungi related to the ergot fungi of the genus Claviceps. A recent study of the Convolvulaceae species, Ipomoea asarifolia, and its associated fungi showed that the presence of a fungus, identified by DNA sequencing of 18s and ITS ribosomal DNA and phylogenetic analysis to be closely related to fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, was always associated with the presence of ergoline alkaloids in the plant. The identified fungus appears to be a seed-transmitted obligate biotroph growing epiphytically on its host.[1] This finding strongly suggests that the unique presence of ergoline alkaloids in some species of the family Convolvulaceae is due to symbiosis with clavicipitaceous fungi. Moreover, another group of compounds, loline alkaloids, commonly produced by some members of the clavicipitaceous fungi (genus Neotyphodium), has been identified in a Convolvulaceae species, but the origin of the loline alkaloids in this species is unknown. [2]

Members of the family are well known as showy garden plants (e.g. morning glory) and as troublesome weeds (e.g. bindweed).

Tribes

According to the study of D.F. Austin (see Reference) the family Convolvulaceae can be classified in the following tribes:

* Ericybeae
* Cressea
* Convolvuleae
* Merremioids
* Ipomoeae
* Argyreiae
* Poraneae
* Dichondreae
* Cuscuteae (sometimes classified as a separate family Cuscutaceae).


Genera

Tribe Aniseieae

* Aniseia Choisy
* Iseia O'Donell
* Odonellia K.R.Robertson
* Tetralocularia O'Donell[3]

Tribe Cardiochlamyeae

* Cardiochlamys Oliv.
* Cordisepalum Verdc.
* Dinetus Buch.-Ham. ex Sweet
* Poranopsis Roberty
* Tridynamia Gagnep.[4]

Tribe Convolvuleae

* Calystegia R.Br. - Bindweed, Morning glory
* Convolvulus L. - Bindweed, Morning glory
* Polymeria R.Br.[5]

Tribe Cresseae

* Bonamia Thouars
* Cladostigma Radlk.
* Cressa L.
* Evolvulus L.
* Hildebrandtia Vatke
* Itzaea Standl. & Steyerm.
* Neuropeltis Wall.
* Neuropeltopsis Ooststr.
* Sabaudiella Chiov.
* Seddera Hochst.
* Stylisma Raf.
* Wilsonia R.Br.[6]

Tribe Cuscuteae

* Cuscuta L. - Dodder[7]

Tribe Dichondreae

* Calycobolus Willd. ex Schult.
* Dichondra J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
* Dipteropeltis Hallier f.
* Falkia Thunb.
* Metaporana N.E.Br.
* Nephrophyllum A.Rich.
* Porana Burm.f.
* Rapona Baill.[8]

Tribe Erycibeae

* Ericybe Roxb.[9]

Tribe Humbertieae

* Humbertia [10]

Tribe Ipomoeeae

* Argyreia Lour. - Hawaiian baby woodrose
* Astripomoea A.Meeuse
* Blinkworthia Choisy
* Ipomoea L. - Morning glory, Sweet potato
* Lepistemon Blume
* Lepistemonopsis Dammer
* Paralepistemon Lejoly & Lisowski
* Rivea Choisy - Coaxihuitl
* Stictocardia Hallier f.
* Turbina Raf.[11]

Tribe Jacquemontieae

* Jacquemontia Choisy[12]

Tribe Maripeae

* Dicranostyles Benth.
* Lysiostyles Benth.
* Maripa Aubl.[13]

Tribe Merremieae

* Decalobanthus Ooststr.
* Hewittia Wight & Arn.
* Hyalocystis Hallier f.
* Merremia Dennst. ex Endl. - Hawaiian woodrose
* Operculina Silva Manso
* Xenostegia D.F.Austin & Staples[14]

Not placed in tribe

* Pentacrostigma K.Afzel.


References


1. ^ Steiner U. et al. (2006) Molecular characterization of a seed transmitted clavicipitaceous fungus occurring on dicotyledoneous plants (Convolvulaceae). Planta 224: 533-544. PMID 16525783
2. ^ Tofern, B, Kaloga, M, Witte, L, Hartmann, T, Eich, E (1999). "Occurrence of loline alkaloids in Argyreia mollis (Convolvulaceae)". Phytochemistry 51: 1177–1180. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00121-1.
3. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Aniseieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1830. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
4. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Cardiochlamyeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1831. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
5. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Convolvuleae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1832. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
6. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Cresseae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1833. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
7. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Cuscuteae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1834. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
8. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Dichondreae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1835. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
9. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Erycibeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1836. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
10. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Humbertieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1837. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
11. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Ipomoeeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1838. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
12. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Jacquemontieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1839. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
13. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Maripeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1840. Retrieved 2009-04-13.
14. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Merremieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1841. Retrieved 2009-04-13.


Further reading

* Austin, D. F. (1973) The American Erycibeae (Convolvulaceae): Maripa, Dicranostyles, and Lysiostyles I. Systematics. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 306-412.
* Austin, D. F. 1997. Convolvulaceae (Morning Glory Family)
* Convolvulus plant
* Convolvulaceae in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants.
* Austin, D.F. 2000. Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Convolvulaceae) in North America—From medicine to menace. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127:172-177
* Costea, M. 2007-onwards. Digital Atlas of Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae)
* Lyons, K.E. 2001. Element stewardship abstract for Convolvulus arvensis L. field bindweed. The Nature Conservancy. [1]
* Calif. Dept. of Food and Agriculture. Undated. Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.). [2]
* Univ. of Idaho Extension. 1999. Homewise: No matter what we do, our morning glory weeds come back every year. Any advice? Aug. 23. [3]
* Hodges, L. 2003. Bindweed identification and trol options for organic production. NebFacts. Univ. of Nebraska – Lincoln Cooperative Extension. [4]
* Univ. of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2003. Field Bindweed. Pest Notes. Publ. # 7462. [5]
* Washington State Univ. Cooperative Extension. Undated. Hortsense: Weeds: Field bindweed (Wild morningglory): Convolvulus arvensis. [6]
* Sullivan, P. 2004. Field bindweed control alternatives. ATTRA. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. [7]
* Lanini, W. T. Undated. Organic weed management in vineyards. University of California, Davis Cooperative Extension. [8]
* Cox, H.R. 1915. The eradication of bindweed or wild morning-glory. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Farmers’ Bulletin 368. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
* Littlefield, J.L. 2004. Bindweeds. In Biological control of invasive plants in the United States, ed. E.M. Coombs et al. Corvallis OR: Oregon State Universityy Press. Pp. 150-157.
* New Mexico State Univ. Cooperative Extension Service. 2004. Managing Aceria malherbae gall mites for control of field bindweed. [9]
* Cox, Caroline. 2005. Coping with field bindweed without using herbicides. Journal of Pesticide Reform 25(1): 6-7

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