Cannabaceae

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Rosales
Familia: Cannabaceae
Genera: Cannabis - Celtis - Gironniera - Humulus - Parasponia - Pteroceltis - Trema

Name

Cannabaceae Martynov

Synonyms

* Celtidaceae

References

* APG II (2003): Cannabaceae
* Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 6, May 2005. [1]
* Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Vascular Plant Families and Genera[2]
* Spitaler, R.; Gurschler, S.; Ellmerer, E.; Schubert, B.; Sgarbossa, M.; Zidorn, C. (in press): Flavonoids from Celtis australis (Cannabaceae). Biochemical systematics and ecology, doi:10.1016/j.bse.2008.11.020

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Català: Cannabàcia
Dansk: Hamp-familien
Deutsch: Hanfgewächse
Esperanto: Kanabacoj
Español: Cannabáceas
Français: Cannabinacée
Magyar: Kenderfélék
Íslenska: Humlaætt
日本語: アサ科
Lietuvių: Kanapiniai
Latviešu: Kaņepju dzimta
Nederlands: Hennepfamilie
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Hampfamilien
Polski: Konopiowate
Русский: Коноплёвые
Suomi: Hamppukasvit
Svenska: Hampväxter
Українська: Коноплеві
Tiếng Việt: Họ Gai dầu
中文: 大麻科

Cannabaceae is a small family of flowering plants.

According to the Royal Botanical Gardens database, there are 170 species grouped in nine to fifteen genera, including three well-known genera Cannabis (hemp), Humulus (hops) and Celtis (hackberries). Celtis is by far the largest genus, counting 60-70 species. However Celtis is sometimes considered to be in a sister family, Celtidaceae.


Taxonomy

Cannabaceae used to be part of the order Urticales, which is now included into Rosales. The family is closely allied with the other families of the old Urticales, Moraceae, Urticaceae, and Ulmaceae. The old Urticales are sister to the rest of Rosales.

Celtis is peculiar among Cannabaceae, as it is a tall tree and it is not dioecious. It was previously included either in the strictly related family Ulmaceae (the elm family) or their own family the Celtidaceae, and has been recently included into Cannabaceae by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group after genetic analysis.

Description

Cannabaceae are very similar to Moraceae. Members of this family can be trees (e.g. Celtis), erect (e.g. Cannabis), or twining herbs (e.g. Humulus).

Leaves are often more or less palmately lobed or palmately compound and always bear stipules. Cystoliths are always present and some members of this family possess laticifers.

Cannabaceae are often dioecious (distinct male and female plants). The flowers are actinomorphic (radially symmetrical) and not showy, as these plants are pollinated by the wind. As an adaptation to this kind of pollination, the calyx is short and there is no corolla. Flowers are grouped to form cymes. In the dioecious plants the masculine inflorescences are long and look like panicles, while the feminine are shorter and bear less flowers. The pistil is made of two connate carpels, the usually superior ovary is unilocular; there is no fixed number of stamens.

The fruit can be an achene, drupe or a small nut.

Uses

Hop (Humulus lupulus) is cultivated for its fruits which contain aromatic substances used in the production of beer. Its young shoots are used as vegetable. Different subspecies of hemp (Cannabis sativa) are cultivated for the production of fiber, as a source of cheap oil, for the nutritious seeds, or to produce recreational, sacramental or medical cannabis.

Both hops and cannabis contain antimicrobial substances. This is why hops extract is used in natural deodorants.[1] Cannabinoids in cannabis are effective at killing MRSA drug-resistant bacteria.[2]

References

1. ^ "Hops [CO2] Extract". Toms of Maine. http://www.tomsofmaine.com/products/ingredient-detail.aspx?id=110&name=Hops%20%5BCO2%5D%20extract. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
2. ^ Appendino, Giovanni; Simon Gibbons, Anna Giana, Alberto Pagani, Gianpaolo Grassi, Michael Stavri, Eileen Smith and M. Mukhlesur Rahman (6 August 2008). "Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study" (PDF). Journal of Natural Products 71 (8): 1427–1430. doi:10.1021/np8002673. PMID 18681481. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/np8002673.

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