Hellenica World

Marshallia

Marshallia obovata (*)

Marshallia

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Marshallia
Schreb.
Species

See text

Marshallia is a genus of plants in the family Asteraceae, endemic to the southeastern United States. A common name applied to most species in the genus is Barbara's Buttons. There are seven species, all perennials. The small white-to-pinkish flowers occur in large, compact, spherical heads. Marshallia is found in open habitats, such as roadsides, bogs, or open woodlands dominated by pines. Several species are associated with wetlands. The typical blooming period is late spring (May) and early summer (June or early July). Marshallia are very attractive to pollinating insects, including butterflies and various beetles, such as flower chafers of the genus Euphoria (Coin 2005). The genus was named for botanist Humphry Marshall.

Species

* Marshallia caespitosa Nutt. ex DC., Puffballs
* Marshallia graminifolia (Walt.) Small, Grassleaf Barbara's buttons
* Marshallia grandiflora Beadle & F.E.Boynt., Monongahela Barbara's buttons
* Marshallia mohrii Beadle & F.E.Boynt, Mohr's Barbara's buttons
* Marshallia obovata (Walt.) Beadle & F.E.Boynt. Spoonshape Barbara's buttons
* Marshallia ramosa Beadle & F.E.Boynt., Southern Barbara's buttons
* Marshallia trinervia (Walt.) Trel., Broadleaf Barbara's buttons

Conservation

Marshallia grandiflora (Monongahela Barbara's buttons) is of conservation concern. It has been extirpated in some former parts of its range, such as Maryland and North Carolina, and is endangered in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. That species is found in bogs and scoured riverbanks, and requires periodic flooding to maintain open habitat. Marshallia obovata (Spoonshape Barbara's buttons or Piedmont Barbara's buttons), is listed as endangered in Florida and threatened in Tennessee (Center for Plant Conservation, USDA Plants).

Etymology

The genus name was given by the botanist Schreber (in Genera Plantarum, 1791) to honor the Marshall family, uncle Humphry and nephew Moses, of Pennsylvania. They were botanists of the American colonial period, and cousins of the famous botanists and explorers John and William Bartram.

The origin of the common name "Barbara's Buttons" is unknown. The flower heads do resemble buttons, but botanical references giving this name do not quote the Barbara which the name honors (Rickett 1975). The reference is possibly to Saint Barbara, though the association is obscure. Saint Barbara had long hair, and is also associated with lightning--perhaps the individual flowers resemble lightning bolts, or the whole head of flowers resembles Saint Barbara's long locks (Coin 2005). This common name was not, at any rate, widespread in the 19th century. It was not used in Southern Wildflowers and Trees (1901) or Plant Life Of Alabama (1901). The botanist B.W. Wells, in Natural Gardens of North Carolina (1932), called the plants "loudspeakers", referring to the megaphone shape of the individual flowers. The first printed use of the name "Barbara's Buttons" is in Small's Flora of The Southeastern United States (1933).

References and external links

* Coin, Patrick (2005). Marshallia – beetle magnet. New Hope Audubon Society Newsletter 31 (3): 2. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: New Hope Audubon Society.
* Duncan, Wilbur H., Marion B. Duncan (1999). Wildflowers of the Eastern United States. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-2107-9.
* Lounsberry, Alice (1901). Southern Wild Flowers and Trees. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company.
* Mohr, Charles T. (1901). Plant Life Of Alabama. Montgomery, Alabama: Brown Printing Company.
* Porcher, Richard D., Douglas A. Rayner (2002), A Guide to the Wildflowers of South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 1-57003-437-0.
* Radford, Albert E., H.E. Ahles, and C. R. Bell (1968). Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1087-8.
* Rickett, Harold (1975). Wildflowers of the United States II(2): 630. New York: McGraw-Hill.
* Small, John Kunkel (1933). Manual of Southeastern Flora. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
* Wells, B.W. (1932, reprint 2002). Natural Gardens of North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4993-6.
* Center for Plant Conservation account for Marshallia grandiflora, accessed 25 May 2006
* USDA Plants accessed 25 May 2006
* BugGuide accessed 25 May 2006
* Humphry Marshall Page accessed 25 May 2006





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