Anthomedusae

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Phylum: Cnidaria
Cladus: Medusozoa
Classis: Hydrozoa
Ordo: Hydroida
Subordo: Anthomedusae
Familiae: Bougainvilliidae - Clathrozoellidae - Halocordylidae - Hydrocorynidae - Myriothelidae - Polyorchidae - Russelliidae

Name

Anthomedusae Haeckel, 1879

Synonyms

* Anthoathecatae
* Athecatae
* Stylasterina Hickson and England, 1905

References

* Peña Cantero, A.L.; Vervoort, W.; Watson, E.J. 2003: On Clathrozoellidae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Anthoathecatae), a new family of rare deep-water leptolids, with the description of three new species. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 345: 281-296.

Vernacular names
Українська: Антомедузи

Anthomedusae or Anthomedusa, the athecate hydroids, are an order of the Hydrozoa, a class of marine invertebrates belonging to the phylum Cnidaria. A profusion of alternate scientific names exists for this long-known, heavily discussed and spectactular group - it has also been called Gymnoblastea, or, with or without an emended ending "-ae", Anthoathecata, Athecata, Hydromedusa or Stylasterina. There are about 1,200 species worldwide.[1]

These hydrozoans always have a polyp stage. Their hydranths grow either solitary or in colonies. There is no firm perisarc around the polyp body. The medusae, or jellyfish, are solitary animals, with tentacles arising from the bell margin, lacking statocysts but possessing radial canals. Their gonads are on the manubrium ("handle").[1]

Except in Eudendriidae and Laingiidae, the cnidome has desmonemes.[1]


Systematics[2]
It is not clear whether Stylaster californicus belongs in the Filifera.


Their close relationship to the Leptomedusae has been long known, but it was formerly believed that these two were also close to the Limnomedusae. Actually, their closest relative are the highly advanced Siphonophorae, whereas the Limnomedusae are simply a rather primitive group that is not very closely related to these three Leptolinae but might actually belong to the Trachylinae subclass. The family Clathrozoellidae is placed with the Filifera in some treatments; in others it is placed in the Leptomedusae and sometimes even synonymized with their family Clathrozoidae. The supposed athecate family Monobrachiidae apparently belongs in the Olindiasidae of the Limnomedusae.

The Porpitidae are highly aberrant group, and were at one time considered an own order "Chondrophora". But actually they are derived from Zancleida. Halammohydridae and Otohydridae, sometimes placed here, actually appear to be trachyline hydrozoans of the order Actinulidae. Similarly, the Laingiidae, also long considered a distinct order Laingiomedusae, might belong in the Pandeida.

Infraorders and families

Basal and incertae sedis Anthomedusae

Genus Gammaria
Genus Saccohydra
Family Codonidae
Family Halimedusidae (Capitata: Moerisiida?)
Family Halocordylidae
Family Laingiidae (Filifera: Pandeida? Tentatively placed here)
Family Myriothelidae (Capitata: Tubulariida? Including Candelabriidae)
Family Rhysiidae (Filifera: Margelina?)
Family Russelliidae (Filifera: Pandeida?)
Family Stylasteridae (Filifera: Margelina?)


Suborder Capitata

Basal or incertae sedis

Genus Blasthothela
Genus Ctenaria (Zancleida: Zancleidae?)
Genus Microcampana
Genus Oonautes (Zancleida: Zancleidae?)
Genus Paulinum
Genus Pteronema
Genus Tetraralphia

Infraorder Moerisiida

Family Boeromedusidae
Family Hydridae
Family Moerisiidae
Family Polyorchidae
Family Protohydridae

Infraorder Sphaerocorynida

Family Hydrocorynidae
Family Sphaerocorynidae
Family Zancleopsidae

Infraorder Tubulariida

Family Acaulidae
Family Boreohydridae
Family Cladonematidae
Family Corymorphidae (including Paragotoeidae)
Family Corynidae (including Dicyclocorynidae)
Family Eleutheriidae
Family Euphysidae
Family Margelopsidae
Family Paracorynidae
Family Pennariidae
Family Solanderiidae
Family Tricyclusidae
Family Tubulariidae

Infraorder Zancleida

Family Asyncorynidae
Family Cladocorynidae
Family Halocorynidae
Family Milleporidae
Family Porpitidae (including Velellidae)
Family Pseudosolanderiidae
Family Rosalindidae
Family Teissieridae
Family Zancleidae

Suborder Filifera

Basal or incertae sedis

Genus Brinckmannia
Genus Kinetocodium (Margelina: Hydractiniidae?)
Genus Millardiana (Margelina: Bougainvilliidae?)
Family Bythotiaridae (including Calycopsidae; Pandeida?)
Family Oceaniidae (including Clavidae; Margelina?)
Family Tubiclavoididae (Pandeida?)

Infraorder Margelina

Family Australomedusidae
Family Balellidae
Family Bougainvilliidae (including Clavopsellidae)
Family Cytaeididae
Family Eucodoniidae
Family Hydractiniidae
Family Ptilocodiidae
Family Rathkeidae
Family Trichydridae

Infraorder Pandeida

Family Eudendriidae (including Urashimeidae)
Family Niobiidae
Family Pandeidae (including Hydrichthyidae)
Family Proboscidactylidae
Family Protiaridae

Footnotes

^ a b c Schuchert (2008)
^ Schuchert (2008), MarineSpecies.org (2008)


References

MarineSpecies.org (2008): Anthomedusae. Retrieved 2008-JUL-08.
Schuchert, Peter (2008): The Hydrozoa Directory - Order Anthomedusae Haeckel, 1879. Retrieved 2008-JUL-08.
Buecher, E., Goy, J. & Gibbons, M.J. 2005. Hydromedusae of the Agulhas Current. African Invertebrates 46: 27-69.[1]

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