Chelonia mydas

Chelonia mydas (*)

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Reptilia
Subclassis: Anapsida
Ordo: Testudines
Subordo: Cryptodira
Superfamilia: Chelonioidea
Familia: Cheloniidae
Subfamilia: Cheloniinae
Genus: Chelonia
Species: Chelonia mydas

Name

Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758)

Chelonia mydas , Photo: Michael Lahanas

References

* Linnaeus, C., 1758. Syst. Nat. ed. 10 1:197.
* Chelonia mydas Report on ITIS
* IUCN link: Chelonia mydas (Endangered)
* Environment Agency of Japan (eds.), 2000. Treatened Wildlife of Japan -Red Data Book 2nd ed.- Reptillia/Amphibia. ISBN4-915959-70-8. [1]
* Ibid. Photographs [2]
* [3] Listed animal in CITES Appendix I

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Deutsch: Suppenschildkröte
Ελληνικά : Χελώνα Μύδας, Πράσινη Θαλασσοχελώνα, Τσαγαλοχελώνα
English: Green Sea Turtle
Esperanto: Kelonio
Español: Tortuga verde
Français: Tortue verte
Hawai`i: Honu
עברית: צב ים ירוק
Hrvatski: Golema želva
Magyar: Levesteknős, zöld teknős
日本語: アオウミガメ
한국어: 청바다거북
Nederlands: Soepschildpad
Polski: Żółw zielony
Português: Tartaruga verde
中文: 綠海龜

------

The Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) or green turtle is a large sea turtle of the family Cheloniidae. It is the only species in the genus Chelonia.[1] Its range extends throughout tropical and subtropical seas around the world, with two distinct populations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.[2] Their common name derives from the usually green fat found beneath their carapace (upper shell).

The green sea turtle is a sea turtle, possessing a dorsoventrally flattened body covered by a large, teardrop-shaped carapace and a pair of large, paddle-like flippers. It is usually lightly colored, although parts of the carapace can be almost black in the Eastern Pacific. Unlike other members of its family such as the hawksbill sea turtle and loggerhead sea turtle, Chelonia mydas is mostly herbivorous. The adults commonly inhabit shallow lagoons, feeding mostly on various species of seagrass.[3]

Like other sea turtles, they migrate long distances between feeding grounds and hatching beaches. Many islands worldwide are known as Turtle Island due to Green sea turtles nesting on their beaches. Females crawl out on beaches, dig nests and lay eggs during the night. Later, hatchlings emerge and walk into the water. Those that reach maturity may live to age 80 in the wild.[2]

Chelonia mydas is listed as endangered by the IUCN and CITES and is protected from exploitation in most countries. It is illegal to collect, harm or kill them. In addition, many countries have laws and ordinances to protect nesting areas. However, turtles are still in danger because of several human practices. In some countries, turtles and their eggs are hunted for food. Pollution indirectly harms turtles at both population and individual scales. Many turtles die caught in fishing nets. Also, real estate development often causes habitat loss by eliminating nesting beaches.


Taxonomy


The green sea turtle is a member of the tribe Chelonini. A 1993 study clarified the status of genus Chelonia with respect to the other marine turtles. The carnivorous Eretmochelys (hawksbill), Caretta (loggerhead) and Lepidochelys (Ridley) were assigned to the tribe Carettini. Herbivorous Chelonia warranted their status while Natator (flatback) was further-removed than previously believed.[4]

The species was originally described by Linnaeus in 1758 as Testudo mydas.[5] In 1868, Bocourt named a particular species of sea turtle as Chelonia agassizii (Chelonia agassizi is a commonly cited misspelling of this taxon).[6] This "species" was referred to as the black sea turtle.[7] Later research determined that the "black sea turtle" was not genetically distinct from C. mydas and thus taxonomically not a separate species.[8] These two "species" were then united as Chelonia mydas and were given subspecies status. C. mydas mydas referred to the originally described population while C. mydas agassizi referred only to the Pacific population.[9][10] This subdivision was later determined to be invalid and all species members were then designated Chelonia mydas.[1] The oft-mentioned name C. agassizi remains an invalid junior synonym of C. mydas.

The species' common name does not derive from any particular green external coloration of the turtle. Its name comes from the greenish color of the turtle's fat, which is only found in a layer between their inner organs and their shell.[11] As a species found worldwide, the green turtle is called differently in some languages and dialects. In the Hawaiian language, honu is used to refer to this species.[12]

Description


Its appearance is that of a typical sea turtle. Chelonia mydas has a dorsoventrally flattened body, a beaked head at the end of a short neck, and paddle-like arms well-adapted for swimming.[13] Adult green turtles grow to 1.5 metres (5 ft) long.[14] While individuals have been caught that reached weights of up to 315 kilograms (690 lb; 49.6 st), the average weight of mature individuals is around 200 kilograms (440 lb; 31 st). The largest known Chelonia mydas weighed 395 kilograms (870 lb; 62.2 st).[15]

Anatomically, a few characteristics distinguish the green turtle from the other members of its family. Unlike the closely related hawksbill turtle, the green turtle's snout is very short and its beak is unhooked. The sheath of the turtle's upper jaw possesses a denticulated edge while its lower jaw has stronger, serrated, more defined denticulation. The dorsal surface of the turtle's head has a single pair of prefrontal scales. Its carapace is composed of five central scutes flanked by four pairs of lateral scutes. Underneath, the green turtle has four pairs of infra-marginal scutes covering the area between the turtle's plastron and its shell. Mature C. mydas front appendages have only a single claw (as opposed to the hawksbill's two), although a second claw is sometimes prominent in young specimens.[16]
Drawing of turtle carapace and plastron showing respectively,vertebral, costal, marginal, and supracaudal and intergular, gular, pectoral, abdominal, humeral, femoral, anal, axillary (anterior inframarginal) and ingiunal (posterior inframarginal) shields
Scalation of C. mydas carapace and plastron

The carapace of the turtle has various color patterns that change over time. Hatchlings of C. mydas, like those of other marine turtles, have mostly black carapaces and light-colored plastrons. Carapaces of juveniles turn dark brown to olive, while those of mature adults are either entirely brown, spotted or marbled with variegated rays. Underneath, the turtle's plastron is hued yellow. C. mydas limbs are dark-colored and lined with yellow, and are usually marked with a large dark brown spot in the center of each appendage.[2][17]

Distribution

The range of Chelonia mydas extends throughout tropical and subtropical oceans worldwide. There are two major subpopulations of C. mydas, the Atlantic and the Eastern Pacific subpopulations. Each population is genetically distinct, with their own set of nesting and feeding grounds within the population's known range.[2]
Map showing turtle distribution with concentrations at entrance to Persian Gulf, East African coast, East and West South African coasts, Northern Australia, and Indonesia, with lesser concentrations in Caribbean, Western African coast, Red Sea, India, and Oceania.
C. mydas distribution. Red circles are known major nesting sites. Yellow circles represent minor nesting locations.

Atlantic subpopulation


Chelonia mydas can generally be found throughout the entire Atlantic Ocean. Individuals have been spotted as far north as Canada in the Western Atlantic and the British Isles in the east. The subpopulation's southern range is known until past the southern tip of Africa in the east and Argentina in the Western Atlantic. The major nesting sites can be found on various islands in the Caribbean, along the eastern shores of the continental United States, the eastern coast of the South American continent and most notably, on isolated North Atlantic islands.

In the Caribbean, major nesting sites have been identified on Aves Island, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico and Costa Rica. One of the region's most important nesting grounds is in Tortuguero in Costa Rica.[18] In fact, the majority of the Caribbean region's C. mydas population hails from a few beaches in Tortuguero.[19] Within United States waters, minor nesting sites have been noted in the states of Georgia, North and South Carolina and all along the east coast of Florida. Hutchinson Island in particular is a major nesting area in Florida waters. Notable locations in South America include secluded beaches in Surinam and French Guiana.[20] In the Southern Atlantic Ocean, the most notable nesting grounds for Chelonia mydas are found on the island of Ascension,[13] hosts 6-13,000 turtle nests.[21][22][23]

In contrast with the sporadic distribution of nesting sites, feeding grounds are much more widely distributed throughout the region. Important feeding grounds in Florida include Indian River Lagoon, the Florida Keys, Florida Bay, Homosassa, Crystal River and Cedar Key.[13][24]

Indo-Pacific subpopulation
Photo of turtle swimming towards surface with diver in background
This green turtle is about to break the surface for air at Kona, Hawaii.

In the Pacific, its range reaches as far north as the southern coast of Alaska and as far south as Chile in the east. The turtle's distribution in the Western Pacific reaches north to Japan and southern parts of Russia's Pacific coast and as far south as the northern tip of New Zealand and a few islands south of Tasmania. The turtles can be found throughout the Indian Ocean.[25]

Significant nesting grounds are scattered throughout the entire Pacific region, including Mexico, the Hawaiian Islands including O'ahu's Turtle Bay,[26] the South Pacific, the northern coast of Australia and Southeast Asia. Major Indian Ocean nesting colonies include India, Pakistan and other coastal countries. The east coast of the African continent hosts a few nesting grounds including islands in the waters around Madagascar.[25]
Photo of turtle walking on beach
C. mydas heading for the ocean on a beach at the Pu'uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park

Nesting grounds are found all along the Mexican coast. These turtles feed in seagrass pastures in the Gulf of California.[27] Green turtles belonging to the distinct Hawaiian subpopulation nest at the protected French Frigate Shoals some 800 kilometers (497 mi) west of the Hawaiian Islands.[12] In the Philippines, green turtles nest in the Turtle Islands along with closely related hawksbill turtles.[28] Indonesia has a few nesting beaches, one in the Meru Betiri National Reserve in East Java.[29] The Great Barrier Reef has two genetically distinct populations; one north and one south. Within the reef, twenty separate locations consisting of small islands and cays were identified as nesting sites for either population of C. mydas. Of these, the most important is on Raine Island.[30][31] Major nesting sites are common on either side of the Arabian Sea, both in Ash Sharqiyah, Oman, and along the coast of Karachi, Pakistan. Some specific beaches there, such as Hawke's Bay and Sandspit, are common to both C. mydas and L. olivacea subpopulation. Sandy beaches along Sindh and Balochistan are nesting sites. Some 25 kilometers (16 mi) off the Pakistani coast, Astola island is another nesting beach.[3][32][33]

On December 30, 2007, fishermen, using a "hulbot-hulbot" or a fishnet accidentally caught an 80 kilograms (176 lb), 93 centimeters (36.6 in) and 82 centimeters (32.3 in) wide, turtle off Barangay Bolong, Zamboanga City, Philippines. December is breeding season near the Bolong beach.[34]

Ecology and behavior
Turtle swimming toward surface
C. mydas swimming, Hawaii

As one of the first sea turtle species studied, much of what is known of sea turtle ecology comes from studies of green turtles. The ecology of Chelonia mydas changes drastically with each stage of its life history. Newly emerged hatchlings are carnivorous, pelagic organisms part of the open ocean mini-nekton. In contrast, immature juveniles and adults are commonly found in seagrass meadows closer inshore as herbivorous grazers.
[edit] Habitat

Green sea turtles move across three habitat types depending on their life stage. They lay eggs on beaches. Mature turtles spend most of their time in shallow, coastal waters with lush seagrass beds. Adults frequent inshore bays, lagoons and shoals with lush seagrass meadows. Entire generations often migrate between one pair of feeding and nesting areas.[13]

Turtles spend most of their first five years in convergence zones within the open ocean.[3][35] These young turtles are rarely seen as they swim in deep, pelagic waters.[36][37]

Predators

Only human beings and the larger sharks feed on C. mydas adults. Specifically, tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) hunt adults in Hawaiian waters.[38] Juveniles and new hatchlings have significantly more predators, including crabs, small marine mammals and shorebirds.[2] In Turkey, their eggs are vulnerable to predation by red foxes and golden jackals.[39]

Life cycle
Photo of newly hatched turtle held in human hand
C. mydas hatchling

Green sea turtles migrate long distances between feeding sites and nesting sites. Some C. mydas swim more than 2,600 kilometers (1,616 mi) to reach their spawning grounds. Mature turtles often return to the exact beach from which they hatched. Females usually mate every two to four years. Males on the other hand, visit the breeding areas every year, attempting to mate.[40] Mating seasons vary between populations. For most Chelonia mydas in the Caribbean, mating season is from June to September.[13] The French Guiana nesting subpopulation nests from March to June.[20] In the tropics, green turtles nest throughout the year, although some subpopulations prefer particular times of the year. In Pakistan, Indian Ocean C. mydas nest year-round but prefer the months of July to December.[32]

Green sea turtles mating is similar to other marine turtles. Female turtles control the process. A few populations practice polyandry, although this does not seem to benefit hatchlings.[41] After mating in the water, the female moves above the beach's high tide line where she digs a hole with her hind flippers and deposits her eggs. Litter size depends on the age of the female and species, but C. mydas clutches range between 100 to 200. She then covers the nest with sand and returns to the sea.[2]

At around 45 to 75 days, the eggs hatch during the night and the hatchlings instinctively head directly into the water. This is the most dangerous time in a turtle's life. As they walk, predators such as gulls and crabs grab them. A significant percentage never make it to the ocean. Little is known of the initial life history of newly hatched sea turtles.[13] Juveniles spend three to five years in the open ocean before they settle as still-immature juveniles into their permanent shallow-water lifestyle.[36][37] It is speculated that they take twenty to fifty years to reach sexual maturity. Individuals live up to eighty years in the wild.[2]

Each year on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic, C. mydas create 6-15,000 nests. They are among the largest green turtles in the world, many more than a meter in length and weighing up to 300 kilograms (661 lb).[42]
[edit] Breathing and sleep

Sea turtles spend almost all their lives submerged but must breathe air for the oxygen needed to meet the demands of vigorous activity. With a single explosive exhalation and rapid inhalation, sea turtles can quickly replace the air in their lungs. The lungs permit a rapid exchange of oxygen and prevent gases from being trapped during deep dives. Sea turtle blood can deliver oxygen efficiently to body tissues even at the pressures encountered during diving. During routine activity green and loggerhead turtles dive for about 4 to 5 minutes and surface to breathe for 1 to 3 seconds.

Turtles can rest or sleep underwater for several hours at a time but submergence time is much shorter while diving for food or to escape predators. Breath-holding ability is affected by activity and stress, which is why turtles quickly drown in shrimp trawlers and other fishing gear.[16]

Importance to humans
Black and white photo of several turtles set on their backs
Harvested green turtles on a wharf at Key West, Florida

Historically, the turtles' skin was tanned and used to make handbags, especially in Hawaii.[12] Ancient Chinese consider the flesh of sea turtles a culinary delicacy, including and especially C. mydas.[43] Particularly for this species, the turtle's calipee, fat and cartilage are sought as ingredients for making turtle soup.[11]

In Java, Indonesia, sea turtle eggs were a popular delicacy. However, the turtle's flesh is regarded as ḥarām or "unclean" under Islamic law (Islam is Java's primary religion). In Bali, turtle meat was a prominent feature at ceremonial and religious feasts. Turtles were harvested in the remotest parts of the Indonesian archipelago.[44] Bali has been importing sea turtles since the 1950s as its own turtle supplies became depleted.[45] The mostly Hindu Balinese did not eat the eggs, selling them instead to local Muslims.

Commercial farms such as the Cayman Turtle Farm in the West Indies once bred them for commercial sale from eggs removed from nests below the waterline. The farms held as many as 100,000 turtles at any one time. When the markets were closed by regulations that did not allow even farm-bred turtles to be sold, the surviving farms became tourist attractions, supporting 11,000 turtles.[46]

Conservation


In recent decades, sea turtles have moved from unrestricted exploitation to global protection with individual countries providing additional protection, although serious threats remain unabated.

Threats

Human action presents both intentional and unintentional threats to the species' survival. Intentional threats include continued hunting and egg harvesting. More dangerous are unintentional threats including boat strikes, fishermen's nets that lack Turtle excluder devices, pollution and habitat destruction. Pollution effects include may create tumors[47] or create disturbances such as effluent from harbors near nesting sites, as well as light pollution which may disorient hatchlings. Habitat loss usually occurs due to human development of nesting areas. Beach-front construction, land "reclamation" and increased tourism are examples of such development.[2][3] An infectious tumor-causing disease known as fibropapillomatosis is also a problem in some populations. The disease kills a sizeable fraction of those that it infects, though some individuals seem to resist the disease.[12][48][49] Because of these threats, many populations are in a vulnerable state.
A poached green turtle in Costa Rica

Pacific green turtle’s foraging habitats are poorly understood and are mostly unknown.[50] These foraging grounds are most likely along the coast of Baja California, Mexico and southern California,[51] in which these turtle’s have a high risk of incidental capture by coastal fisheries. The main mortality factor for these turtles is the shrimp trawlers in Mexico, in which many of these turtles go undocumented.[51] The only foraging area that has been identified is the San Diego Bay, but it is heavily polluted with metals and PCBs.[51] These contaminates have a negative effect on the ocean environment, and have been shown to cause lesions and sometimes mortality.[51] Green turtles also are threatened by entanglement and ingestion of plastic.[51] In San Diego Bay an adult green turtle was found dead with monofilament netting tightly packed in its esophagus.[51]

Global initiatives

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has repeatedly listed green sea turtles in its Red List under differing criteria. In 1982, they officially classified it as an endangered species.[52] The 1986,[53] 1988,[54] 1990,[55] 1994,[56] and the landmark 1996 edition of the IUCN Red List, retained the listing.[57]

In 2001, Nicholas Mrosovsky filed a delisting petition, claiming that some green turtle populations were large, stable and in some cases, increasing. At the time, the species was listed under the strict EN A1abd criteria. The IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee ruled that visual counts of nesting females could not be considered "direct observation" and thus downgraded the species' status to EN A1bd—retaining the turtle's endangered status.[58]

In 2004, the IUCN reclassified Cheolina mydas as endangered under the EN A2bd criteria, which essentially states that wild populations face a high risk of extinction because of several factors. These factors include a probable population reduction of more than 50% over the past decade as estimated from abundance indices and by projecting exploitation levels.[59]

On May 3, 2007, "C. mydas was listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) as a member of the family Cheloniidae.[60] The species was originally listed on Appendix II in 1975. The entire family was moved to Appendix I in 1977, with the exception of the Australian population of C. mydas. In 1981, the Australian population joined the rest. It is therefore illegal to import, export, kill, capture or harass green turtles.[61]

The Mediterranean population is listed as critically endangered.[2][11] In the East Pacific, Hawaii and Southern California subpopulations are designated threatened. Specific Mexican subpopulations are listed as endangered. The Florida population is listed as endangered. The World Wide Fund for Nature has labeled populations in Pakistan as "rare and declining."[33]

Country-specific initiatives
Another C. mydas at the Osaka Aquarium. Profile photo of turtle resting on bottom

In addition to management by global entities such as the IUCN and CITES, specific countries around the world have undertaken conservation efforts.

The traditional uses of turtle on Bali were once deemed sustainable, but have been questioned considering greater demand from the larger and wealthier human population. The harvest was the most intensive in the world.[44] In 1999, Indonesia restricted turtle trade and consumption because of the decreasing population and threat of a tourist boycott. It rejected a request made by Bali Governor I Made Mangku Pastika in November 2009 to set a quota of 1,000 turtles to be killed in Hindu religious ceremonies. While conservationists respect the need for turtles in rituals, they wanted a smaller quota.[62]

Eco-tourism is one initiative in Sabah, Malaysia. The island of Pulau Selingan is home to a turtle hatchery. Staff place some of the eggs laid each night in a hatchery to protect them from predators. Incubation takes around sixty days. When the eggs hatch, tourists assist in the release of the baby turtles into the sea.[63] In the United States, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services and National Marine Fisheries Service classifies Chelonia mydas as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act,[64] rendering it a federal offense to capture or kill an individual turtle. The Hawaiian subpopulation has made a remarkable comeback and is now one focus of ecotourism and has become something of a state mascot. Students of Hawaii Preparatory Academy Ascension Island in the South Atlanticon the Big Island have tagged thousands of specimens since the early 1990s.[12] In the United Kingdom the species is protected by a Biodiversity Action Plan, due to excess harvesting and marine pollution.[65] The Pakistani-branch of the World Wide Fund for Nature has been initiating projects for secure turtle hatching since the 1980s. However, the population has continued to decline.[3]

In the Atlantic, conservation initiatives have centered around Caribbean nesting sites. The Tortuguero[disambiguation needed] nesting beaches in Costa Rica have been the subject of egg-collection limits since the 1950s. The Tortuguero National Park was formally established in 1976 in part to protect that region's nesting grounds.[18] On Ascension Island which contains some of the most important nesting beaches, an active conservation program has been implemented.[66] Karumbé has been monitoring foraging and developmental areas of juvenile green turtles Chelonia mydas in Uruguay since 1999.[67]

See also

* Galápagos Green Turtle a subspecies of the Green sea turtle.
* Chelonioidea. The sea turtle superfamily.
* Sea Turtle Association of Japan, Kuroshima Research Station


Notes

1. ^ a b "Chelonia mydas". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=173833. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas)". National Geographic - Animals. National Geographic Society. 2005-12-29. http://www3.nationalgeographic.com/animals/reptiles/green-turtle.html. Retrieved 2007-02-21.
3. ^ a b c d e "Green Sea Turtle - Chelonia mydas japonica". Turtles of Pakistan. Wildlife of Pakistan. 2003. http://www.wildlifeofpakistan.com/ReptilesofPakistan/greenseaturtle.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-21.
4. ^ Bowen, Brian W.; William S. Nelson and John C. Avise (1993-06-15). "A Molecular Phylogeny for Marine Turtles: Trait Mapping, Rate Assessment, and Conservation Relevance". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (National Academy of Sciences) 90 (12): 5574–5577. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.12.5574. PMID 8516304.
5. ^ "Testudo mydas". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=208662. Retrieved 23 February 2007.
6. ^ "Chelonia agassizi". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=655934. Retrieved 23 February 2007.
7. ^ "Chelonia agassizii". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=202103. Retrieved 23 February 2007.
8. ^ Karl, Stephen H.; Brian W. Bowen (1999). "Evolutionary Significant Units versus Geopolitical Taxonomy: Molecular Systematics of an Endangered Sea Turtle (genus Chelonia)" (abstract). Conservation Biology (Blackwell Synergy) 13 (5): 990–999. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.97352.x. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.97352.x. Retrieved 2007-09-09.
9. ^ "Chelonia mydas agassizi". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=208663. Retrieved 23 February 2007.
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11. ^ a b c "green turtle". Marine Turtles. Marine Conservation Society. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-08-22. http://web.archive.org/web/20070822011514/http://www.mcsuk.org/marineworld/turtles/green+turtle. Retrieved 2007-08-30.
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13. ^ a b c d e f "Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas)". North Florida Field Office. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 2005-12-29. http://www.fws.gov/northflorida/SeaTurtles/Turtle%20Factsheets/Green-Sea-Turtle.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-21.
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16. ^ a b "Green Sea Turtle". MarineBio.org. 2007-05-21. http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=51. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
17. ^ Boulenger, G. A. (1890). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia.. London: Taylor & Francis. pp. 541. ISBN 0548968489.
18. ^ a b Bjorndal, Karen A.; Jerry A. Wetherall, Alan B. Bolten and Jeanne A. Mortimer (February 1999). "Twenty-Six Years of Green Turtle Nesting at Tortuguero, Costa Rica: An Encouraging Trend". Conservation Biology 13 (1): 126–134. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.97329.x.
19. ^ Lahanas, P. N.; K. A. Bjorndal, A. B. Bolten, S. E. Encalada, M. M. Miyamoto, R. A. Valverde and B. W. Bowen (1998). "Genetic composition of a green turtle (Chelonia mydas) feeding ground population: evidence for multiple origins" (PDF). Marine Biology (Springer-Verlag) 130: 345–352. doi:10.1007/s002270050254. http://accstr.ufl.edu/publications/Lahanas_et_al_1998_MarBiol.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-01.
20. ^ a b Girondot, Marc; Jacques Fretey (1996). "Leatherback Turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, Nesting in French Guiana, 1978-1995". Chelonian Conservation Biology 2: 204–208. http://www.ese.u-psud.fr/epc/conservation/Publi/texte/AE_CCB96.html. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
21. ^ Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; et al. (2002) (PDF). IUCN 2002 Red List Global Status Assessment: Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas). of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). p. 93. http://www.seaturtle.org/PDF/Seminoff_2002_IUCNList.pdf.
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23. ^ Broderick, Annette C.; Brendan J. Godley and Graeme C. Hays (2001). "Monitoring and conservation of marine turtles of Ascension Island: a sustainable resource". Interim Report to Foreign and Commonwealth Office Environment Fund for the Overseas Territories. p. 13.
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References

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* Seminoff (2004). Chelonia mydas. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 09 May 2006.

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