Hellenica World

Tamias

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Rodentia
Subordo: Sciuromorpha
Familia: Sciuridae
Subfamilia: Xerinae
Tribus: Marmotini
Genus: Tamias
Species: T. alpinus - T. amoenus - T. bulleri - T. canipes - T. cinereicollis - T. dorsalis - T. durangae - T. merriami - T. minimus - T. obscurus - T. ochrogenys - T. palmeri - T. panamintinus - T. quadrimaculatus - T. quadrivittatus - T. ruficaudus - T. rufus - T. senex - T. sibiricus - T. siskiyou - T. sonomae - T. speciosus - T. striatus - T. townsendii - T. umbrinus

Name

Tamias (Illiger, 1811)

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Streifenhörnchen
English: Chipmunks
Nederlands: Chipmunks
Polski: Pręgowce
Русский: Бурундуки
Suomi: Maaoravat

References

* Tamias on Mammal Species of the World.
* Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2 Volume Set edited by Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder

Chipmunks are small striped squirrels native to North America and Asia. They are usually classed either as a single genus with three subgenera, or as three genera.

Etymology and taxonomy

Chipmunks are usually classified either as a single genus, Tamias, or as three genera: Tamias, containing the eastern chipmunk; Eutamias, containing the Siberian chipmunk; and Neotamias, containing the 23 remaining, mostly western, species. These classifications are arbitrary, and most taxonomies[citation needed] over the twentieth century have placed the chipmunks in a single genus. However, studies of mitochondrial DNA show that each of the three chipmunk groups is about as distinct genetically as genera such as Marmota and Spermophilus.[1][2][3][4]

Tamias is Greek for "storer," a reference to the animals' habit of collecting and storing food for winter use.[5]

The common name originally may have been spelled "chitmunk" (from the Odawa word jidmoonh, meaning "red squirrel"; c.f. Ojibwe, ajidamoo). However, the earliest form cited in the Oxford English Dictionary (from 1842) is "chipmonk". Other early forms include "chipmuck" and "chipminck", and in the 1830s they were also referred to as "chip squirrels," possibly in reference to the sound they make. They are also called "striped squirrels", "chippers", "munks", "timber tigers", or "ground squirrels", though the name "ground squirrel" usually refers to other squirrels, such as those of the genus Spermophilus.
Diet

Chipmunks have an omnivorous diet consisting of grain, nuts, fruit, berries, birds' eggs, small frogs, fungi, worms, insects and on occasions small mammals like young mice.[6][7] At the beginning of autumn, many species of chipmunk begin to stockpile these goods in their burrows, for winter. Other species make multiple small caches of food. These two kinds of behavior are called larder hoarding and scatter hoarding. Larder hoarders usually live in their nests until spring. Cheek pouches allow chipmunks to carry multiple food items to their burrows for either storage or consumption.[8]
Ecology and life history

Eastern chipmunks mate in early spring and again in early summer, producing litters of four or five young twice each year.[6] Western chipmunks only breed once a year. The young emerge from the burrow after about six weeks and strike out on their own within the next two weeks.[9]

These small mammals fulfill several important functions in forest ecosystems. Their activities harvesting and hoarding tree seeds play a crucial role in seedling establishment. They consume many different kinds of fungi, including those involved in symbiotic mycorrhizal associations with trees, and are an important vector for dispersal of the spores of subterranean sporocarps (truffles) which have co-evolved with these and other mycophagous mammals and thus lost the ability to disperse their spores through the air.[10]

Chipmunks play an important role as prey for various predatory mammals and birds, but are also opportunistic predators themselves, particularly with regard to bird eggs and nestlings. In Oregon, Mountain Bluebirds (Siala currucoides) have been observed energetically mobbing chipmunks that they see near their nest trees.

Chipmunks construct expansive burrows which can be more than 3.5 m in length with several well-concealed entrances. The sleeping quarters are kept extremely clean as shells and feces are stored in refuse tunnels.


Classification

Subgenus Tamias[11]

* Eastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus

Subgenus Eutamias

* Siberian chipmunk, Eutamias sibiricus

Subgenus Neotamias

* Alpine chipmunk, Neotamias alpinus
* Yellow-pine chipmunk, Neotamias amoenus
* Buller's chipmunk, Neotamias bulleri
* Gray-footed chipmunk, Neotamias canipes
* Gray-collared chipmunk, Neotamias cinereicollis
* Cliff chipmunk, Neotamias dorsalis
* Durango chipmunk, Neotamias durangae
* Merriam's chipmunk, Neotamias merriami
* Least chipmunk, Neotamias minimus
* California chipmunk, Neotamias obscurus
* Yellow-cheeked chipmunk, Neotamias ochrogenys
* Palmer's chipmunk, Neotamias palmeri
* Panamint chipmunk, Neotamias panamintinus
* Long-eared chipmunk, Neotamias quadrimaculatus
* Colorado chipmunk, Neotamias quadrivittatus
* Red-tailed chipmunk, Neotamias ruficaudus
* Hopi chipmunk, Neotamias rufus
* Allen's chipmunk, Neotamias senex
* Siskiyou chipmunk, Neotamias siskiyou
* Sonoma chipmunk, Neotamias sonomae
* Lodgepole chipmunk, Neotamias speciosus
* Townsend's chipmunk, Neotamias townsendii
* Uinta chipmunk, Neotamias umbrinus

Extinct:

* †Tamias aristus

Notes

1. ^ Wilson, D. E.; D. M. Reeder (2005). "Mammal Species of the World (MSW)". Archived from the original on 2007-06-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20070623030727/http://nmnhgoph.si.edu/msw/. Retrieved 2007-06-27.
2. ^ Piaggio, A. J. and Spicer, G. S. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the chipmunks inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20: 335–350.
3. ^ Piaggio, Antoinette J.; Spicer, Greg S. (2000). "Molecular Phylogeny of the Chipmunk Genus Tamias Based on the Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit II Gene". Journal of Mammalian Evolution 7 (3).
4. ^ Musser, G. G.; Durden, L. A.; Holden, M. E.; and Light, J. E. (2010) "Systematic review of endemic Sulawesi squirrels (Rodentia, Sciuridae), with descriptions of new species of associated sucking lice (Insecta, Anoplura), and phylogenetic and zoogeographic assessments of sciurid lice." Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 339.
5. ^ John O. Whitaker, Jr.; Robert Elman (1980). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals (2nd edition ed.). New York: Knopf. p. 370. ISBN 0-394-50762-2.
6. ^ a b Hazard, Evan B. (1982). The Mammals of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 52–54. ISBN 0-8166-0952-7. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=sjoQK1bedB0C&pg=PA53&dq=eastern+chipmunk+mate&as_brr=3&sig=ACfU3U1yqjlcK_T-9SF3IsdkkDH1eEg8EQ#PPA54,M1.
7. ^ Eastern Chipmunk - Tamias striatus - NatureWorks
8. ^ West Virginia Wildlife Magazine: Wildlife Diversity Notebook. Eastern chipmunk
9. ^ Schwartz, Charles Walsh; Elizabeth Reeder Schwartz, Jerry J. Conley (2001). The Wild Mammals of Missouri. University of Missouri Press. pp. 135–140. ISBN 0-8262-1359-6. 10. ^ Apostol, Dean; Marcia Sinclair (2006). Restoring the Pacific Northwest: The Art and Science of Ecological Restoration in Cascadia. Island Press. p. 112. ISBN 1-55963- 11. ^ Tamias, Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed.

Further reading

* Baack, Jessica K. and Paul V. Switzer. "Alarm Calls Affect Foraging Behavior in Eastern Chipmunks (Tamias Striatus, Rodentia: Sciuridae)." Ethology. Vol. 106. Dec. 2003. 1057–1066.
* Gordon, Kenneth Llewellyn. The Natural History and Behavior of the Western Chipmunk and the Mantled Ground Squirrel. Oregon: 1943
* Nichols, John D. and Earl Nyholm (1995). A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

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