Hellenica World

Tamandua tetradactyla

Tamandua tetradactyla, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Pilosa
Subordo: Vermilingua
Familia: Myrmecophagidae
Genus: Tamandua
Species: Tamandua tetradactyla
Subspecies: T. t. nigra - T. t. quichua - T. t. straminea

Tamandua tetradactyla (*)

Name

Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758

Type locality: "America meridionali", Brazil, Pernambuco, Recife (Thomas, 1911)

Synonyms

* Myrmecophaga tamandua G. Cuvier, 1798
* Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758

References

* Tamandua tetradactyla on Mammal Species of the World.
Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2 Volume Set edited by Don E. Wilson, DeeAnn M. Reeder
* Linnaeus: Systema Naturae, 10th ed., 1: 35.

Vernacular names
Internationalization
English: Southern Tamandua
Español: Oso mielero
日本語: ミナミコアリクイ
Nederlands: Zuidelijke boommiereneter
Polski: Tamandua południowy
Português: Tamanduá-mirim

The Southern Tamandua, Collared Anteater or Lesser Anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla) is a species of anteater from South America.

It is a solitary animal, found in many habitats from mature to highly disturbed secondary forests and arid savannas. It feeds on ants, termites and bees. It has very strong foreclaws that can be used to break insect nests or to defend itself.

Subspecies

* Tamandua tetradactyla nigra Geoffroy, 1803
* Tamandua tetradactyla quichua Thomas, 1927
* Tamandua tetradactyla straminea Cope, 1889


Geographic Range

Tamandua tetradactyla is found in South America from Venezuela and Trinidad to northern Argentina, southern Brazil, and Uruguay at elevations to 2000 m.

Habitat

Tamandua tetradactyla inhabits various wet and dry forests, including tropical rainforest, savanna, and thorn scrub. It seems to be most common in habitats near streams and rivers, especially those thick with vines and epiphytes (presumably because its prey is common in these areas).

Physical description
Tamandua tetradactyla skull

Head and body length ranges from 535 mm (21.1 in) to 880 mm (31.5 in) and tail length from 400 mm (15.7 in) to 590 mm (23.2 in). The individual and geographic variation observed in the Southern Tamandua has made the taxonomic description of these animals a difficult task. Animals from the southeastern part of the range are "strongly vested," meaning that they have black markings from shoulder to rump; the black patch widens near the shoulders and encircles the forelimbs . The rest of the body can be blonde, tan, or brown. Animals from northern Brazil and Venezuela to west of the Andes are solid blonde, brown, or black, or are only lightly vested. Tamanduas have four clawed digits on the forefeet and five on the hindfeet. To avoid puncturing their palms with their sharp claws, they walk on the outsides of their hands. The underside and the end of the prehensile tail are hairless. The snout is long and decurved with an opening only as wide as the diameter of a stick, from which the tongue is protruded.

Reproduction

Females of Tamandua tetradactyla are polyestrous; mating generally takes place in the fall. Gestation ranges from 130 to 150 days and one young is born in the spring. At birth the young anteater does not resemble its parents; its coat varies from white to black. It rides on the mother's back for a period of time and is sometimes deposited on a safe branch while the mother forages.

Behavior

The tamandua is mainly nocturnal but is occasionally active during the day. It is thought to nest during the day in hollow tree trunks or in the burrows of other animals. These animals are solitary. They may communicate when aggravated by hissing and releasing an unpleasant scent from the anal gland. Tamandua tetradactyla spends much of its time foraging arboreally; a study in various habitats in Venezuela showed that this anteater spends 13 to 64 percent of its time in trees. In fact, the Southern Tamandua is quite clumsy on the ground and ambles along, incapable of the gallop that its relative, the Giant Anteater, can achieve.

The Southern Tamandua uses its powerful forearms in self-defense. If it is threatened in a tree it grasps a branch with its hindfeet and tail, leaving its arms and long, curved claws free for combat. If attacked on the ground, this anteater backs up against a rock or a tree and grabs the opponent with its forearms.

In the rainforest the Southern Tamandua is surrounded during the day by a cloud of flies and mosquitoes and is often seen wiping these insects from its eyes.

This animal has small eyes and poor vision. Its large, upright ears indicate that hearing is an important sense for this animal.

Food Habits

Southern Tamanduas eat ants and termites (mainly arboreal forms), which they locate by scent. They avoid eating ants that are armed with strong chemical defenses, such as army ants and leaf-eating ants. Tamanduas are also thought to eat honey and bees and, in captivity, have been known to eat fruit and meat as well. Anteaters extract their prey by using their extremely strong forelimbs to rip open nests and their elongated snouts and rounded tongues (up to 40 cm in length) to lick up the insects.

Economic Importance for Humans

Tamanduas are sometimes used by Amazonian Indians to rid their homes of ants and termites.

Conservation status

Tamandua tetradacyla in southestern Brazil is listed as CITES Appendix II. These animals, though widespread, are uncommon. They are killed by hunters, who claim that tamanduas kill dogs. They are also killed for the thick tendons in their tails, from which rope is made.

References

1. ^ Gardner, Alfred L. (16 November 2005). "Order Pilosa (pp. 100-103)". In Wilson, Don E., and Reeder, DeeAnn M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols. (2142 pp.). p. 103. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=11800048.
2. ^ Abba, A., Lara-Ruiz, P. & Members of the IUCN SSC Edentate Specialist Group (2008). Tamandua tetradactyla. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 28 November 2008.

* Louise H. Emmons and Francois Feer, 1997 - Neotropical Rainforest Mammals, A Field Guide.
* Gorog, A. 1999. "Tamandua tetradactyla" from Animal Diversity Web.

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