Species: Streptopelia decaocto
Subspecies: S. d. decaocto - S. d. stoliczkae - S. d. xanthocyclus
Streptopelia decaocto (Frivaldszky, 1838)
Kaarpaataljai Magyar Tudomaanyos Tarsaag. Evkonyvi 3(1834-6) pt3 p.183 pl.8
Česky: Hrdlička zahradní
Ελληνικά: Δεκαοχτούρα (Ευρασιατική)
English: Eurasian Collared Dove
Français: Tourterelle turque
Magyar: Balkáni gerle
Türkçe: Gülen kumru
Vèneto: Tórtora dal colarin
The Eurasian Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto, most often simply called the Collared Dove, also sometimes hyphenated as Eurasian Collared-dove is a species of dove native to Asia and Europe, and also recently introduced in North America.
It is a medium sized dove, distinctly smaller than the Wood Pigeon, similar in length to a Rock Pigeon but slimmer and longer-tailed, and slightly larger than the related Turtle Dove, 30–33 cm long from tip of beak to tip of tail, with a wingspan of 47–55 cm, and a weight of 125–240 g. It is grey-buff to pinkish-grey overall, a little darker above than below, with a blue-grey underwing patch. The tail feathers are grey-buff above, and dark grey tipped white below; the outer tail feathers also tipped whitish above. It has a black half-collar edged with white on its nape from which it gets its name. The short legs are red and the bill is black. The iris is red, but from a distance the eyes appear to be black, as the pupil is relatively large and only a narrow rim of reddish-brown iris can be seen around the black pupil. The eye is surrounded by a small area of bare skin, which is either white or yellow. The two sexes are virtually indistinguishable; juveniles differ in having a poorly developed collar, and a brown iris.
It is closely related to the Island Collared Dove of southeast Asia and the African Collared Dove of sub-Saharan Africa, forming a superspecies with these. Identification from African Collared Dove is very difficult with silent birds, with the African species being marginally smaller and paler, but the calls are very distinct, a soft purring in African Collared Dove quite unlike the Eurasian Collared Dove's cooing.
The Collared Dove is not migratory, but is strongly dispersive. Over the last century, it has been one of the great colonisers of the bird world. Its original range at the end of the 19th century was warm temperate and subtropical Asia from Turkey east to southern China and south through India to Sri Lanka. However, in the 20th century it expanded across Europe, appearing in the Balkans between 1900-1920, and then spreading rapidly northwest, reaching Germany in 1945, Great Britain by 1953 (breeding for the first time in 1956), Ireland in 1959, and the Faroe Islands in the early 1970s. Subsequent spread was 'sideways' from this fast northwest spread, reaching northeast to north of the Arctic Circle in Norway and east to the Ural Mountains in Russia, and southwest to the Canary Islands and northern Africa from Morocco to Egypt, by the end of the 20th century. In the east of its range, it has also spread northeast to most of central and northern China, and locally (probably introduced) in Japan. It has also reached Iceland as a vagrant (41 records up to 2006), but has not colonised successfully there.
There are two subspecies, Streptopelia decaocto decaocto in most of the range (including all of the 20th century colonisations), and Streptopelia decaocto xanthocyclus in the southeast of the range from Burma east to southern China. The latter differs in having yellow skin around the eye (white in the nominate subspecies). Two other subspecies formerly sometimes accepted, Streptopelia decaocto stoliczkae from Turkestan in central Asia, and Streptopelia decaocto intercedens from southern India and Sri Lanka, are now considered synonyms of S. d. decaocto.
The Collared Dove was introduced into the Bahamas in the 1970s and spread from there to Florida by 1982. It has become invasive; the stronghold in North America is still the Gulf Coast, but it now found as far south as Veracruz, as far west as California, and as far north as British Columbia, the Great Lakes, and Nova Scotia. Some of the more distantly dispersed records may refer to local escapes from captivity. Its impact on other species there is as yet unknown; it appears to occupy an ecological niche between that of the Mourning Dove and Rock Pigeon (also an invasive species in North America).
Collared Doves typically breed close to human habitation wherever food resources are abundant and there are trees for nesting; almost all nests are within a kilometre of inhabited buildings. It lays two white eggs in a stick nest, which are incubated by the female during the night and by the male during the day. Incubation lasts 14-18 days, and the young fledge after 15-19 days. Breeding occurs throughout the year when abundant food is available, though only rarely in winter in areas with cold winters such as northeastern Europe; three to four broods per year is common, and up to six broods in a year known.
The males mating display is a ritual flight, which as many other pigeons, consists of a rapid, nearly vertical climb to height, followed by a long glide downward in a circle, with the wings held below the body in an inverted 'v'. At all other times, flight is typically direct without gliding, with fast, clipped wingbeats.
It is not wary and often feeds very close to human habitation, including visiting bird tables; the largest populations are typically found around farms where spilt grain is frequent around grain stores or where livestock are fed. It is a gregarious species, and sizable winter flocks will form where there are food supplies such as grain which is its main food as well as seeds, shoots and insects. Flocks most commonly number 10-50, but flocks of up to 10,000 are known.
The song is a coo-COO-coo, repeated many times. It is phonetically similar to the Greek, decaocto ('eighteen'), to which the bird owes its name. It also makes a harsh loud screeching call lasting about two seconds, particularly in flight just before landing.
Collared Doves cooing in early spring are sometimes mistakenly reported as the calls of early-arriving Cuckoos, this call being traditionally regarded as a sign of spring in many parts of Europe.
They are almost always seen in pairs and, like many birds, remain loyal to their mates.
1. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Streptopelia decaocto. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
2. ^ a b c d Snow, D. W.; & Perrins, C. M. (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic (Concise Edition ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854099-X.
3. ^ a b Hagemeijer, W. J. M., & Blair, M. J., eds. (1997). The EBCC Atlas of European Breeding Birds. Poyser, London ISBN 0-85661-091-7.
4. ^ a b c d e f g Cramp, S., ed. (1985). The Birds of the Western Palearctic 4: 340-353. ISBN 978-0198575078
5. ^ a b Javier Blasco-Zumeta, Laboratorio Virtual Ibercaja Collared Dove
6. ^ a b c d e f Hoyo, J. del, et al., eds. (1997). Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 137. ISBN 84-87334-22-9.
7. ^ Birding Iceland: Eurasian Collared Dove
8. ^ Beckett, S. M., Komar, N., & Doherty, P. F. (2007). Population Estimates for Eurasian Collared-dove in Northeastern Colorado. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119 (3): 471-475. Abstract.