Pelophylax ridibundus

Pelophylax ridibundus

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Amphibia
Subclassis: Lissamphibia
Ordo: Anura
Subordo: Neobatrachia
Familia: Ranidae
Genus: Pelophylax
Species: Pelophylax ridibundus

Pelophylax ridibundus, Photo:  Augusta Stylianou Artist

Name

Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771)

Type locality: "versus mare Caspium; Volgae et Iaico" (= opposite to the Caspian Sea, Volga, and on the Yaik [= Ural] River), Russia and Kazakhstan.

Holotype: Not stated.

Synonyms

* Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758
* Rana viridis Linnaeus, 1761
* Rana ridibunda Pallas, 1771
* Rana vulgaris Lacépède, 1788
* Rana gigas Gmelin, 1789
* Bufo ridibundus — Bonnaterre, 1789
* Rana persica Schneider, 1799
* Rana cachinnans Pallas, 1814
* Rana caucasica Pallas, 1814
* Rana bufoides Güldenstadt in Pallas, 1814
* Ranaria esculenta — Rafinesque, 1814
* Rana alpina Fitzinger, 1826
* Rana hispanica Fitzinger, 1826
* Rana maritima Risso, 1826
* Rana bosci Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1828
* Rana viridis Eichwald, 1830
* Rana esculenta var. tigrina Eichwald, 1831
* Rana dentex Krynicki, 1837
* Bufo cachinnans — Hohenacker, 1837
* Rana hispanica Bonaparte, 1839
* Rana taurica Bonaparte, 1840
* Rana fluviatilis Bonaparte, 1840
* Rana viridis Duméril & Bibron, 1841
* Rana esculenta tigrina Eichwald, 1842
* Pelophylax esculentus — Fitzinger, 1843
* Rana esculenta var. lineata Massalongo, 1854
* Rana esculenta var. vulgaris Massalongo, 1854
* Rana esculenta var. roseo-virescens Massalongo, 1854
* Rana esculenta var. marmorata Massalongo, 1854
* Pelophylax hispanicus — Fitzinger, 1861
* Rana esculenta var. hispanica — Steindachner, 1867
* Rana agrorum Gistel, 1868
* Rana esculenta var. cachinnans — Kessler, 1872
* Rana esculenta viridis — Lataste, 1880
* Rana esculenta var. ridibunda — Boettger, 1880
* Rana esculenta var. viridis — Bedriaga, 1883
* Rana fortis Boulenger, 1884
* Rana (Baliopygus) ridibunda — Schultze, 1891
* Rana (Baliopygus) viridis — Schultze, 1891
* Rana esculenta var. alpina — Boettger, 1892
* Rana esculenta var. maxima Prazák, 1898
* Rana esculenta var. nigromaculata Prazák, 1898
* Rana esculenta var. concolor Prazák, 1898
* Rana esculenta var. immaculata Prazák, 1898
* Rana esculenta var. grisescens Prazák, 1898
* Rana esculenta var. paulopunctata Prazák, 1898
* Rana esculenta var. rubiginosa Prazák, 1898
* Rana esculenta var. susana Boulenger, 1905
* Rana florinskii Kashchenko & Sipacev, 1913
* Rana (Rana) esculenta — Boulenger, 1920
* Rana ridibunda ridibunda — Mertens, 1925
* Rana esculenta var. hungarica Toutain, 1966
* Rana kl. esculenta — Dubois & Günther, 1982
* Rana (Rana) ridibunda — Dubois, 1987
* Rana (Rana) kl. esculenta — Dubois, 1987
* Pelophylax ridibunda — Fei, Ye & Huang, 1990
* Rana (Pelophylax) ridibunda — Dubois, 1992
* Rana (Pelophylax) kl. esculenta — Dubois, 1992
* Rana (Pelophylax) kl. grafi Crochet, Dubois, Ohler & Tunner, 1995
* Rana (Pelophylax) kl. maritima — Dubois & Ohler, 1996
* Rana (Pelophylax) susana — Dubois & Ohler, 1996
* Rana (Pelophylax) kl. hispanica — Dubois & Ohler, 1996
* Hylarana ridibundus — Chen, Murphy, Lathrop, Ngo, Orlov, Ho & Somorjai, 2005
* Pelophylax ridibundus — Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green & Wheeler, 2006

References

* Pallas, 1771, Reise Vers. Prov. Russ. Reich, 1: 458.
* Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 369.
* Frost, Darrel R. 2007. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.1 (10 October, 2007). Electronic Database accessible at [1] American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Pelophylax ridibundus . Accessed on 05 July 2008.
* 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species IUCN link: Pelophylax ridibundus (Least Concern) Downloaded on 05 July 2008. (as Rana ridibunda)

Vernacular names
Internationalization
English: Central Asian Marsh Frog
日本語: ワライガエル
Türkçe: Ova kurbağası

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The Marsh Frog (Pelophylax ridibundus) is the largest frog native to Europe, and belongs to the family of true frogs. It is very similar in appearance to the closely related Edible Frog and Pool Frog. These three species, now again in the genus Pelophylax, are often referred to as "green frogs" to distinguish them from the more terrestrial European Rana species, which are known as "brown frogs" (best exemplified by the Common Frog Rana temporaria).

Characteristics

The Marsh Frog is a water-dwelling, generally green-colored frog species. It can reach a maximum length of 17 centimetres, but males remain smaller (around 12 cm). The head is proportionally large and the hind legs are long, which gives them excellent jumping abilities.

There is a large variation in colour and pattern, ranging from dark green to brown or grey, sometimes with some lighter green lines; a lighter line on the back is generally present. The Western European populations are generally dark green to black with dark spot on the back and sides and three clear green lines on the back.

Diet

The diet of the Marsh Frog consists of dragonflies and other insects, spiders, earthworms and slugs. Larger frogs also eat small rodents and sometimes smaller amphibians and fish.

Distribution
Marsh Frog

The green frog occurs in the largest part of Europe, in Asian Russia to Afghanistan and Pakistan and in the Chinese province of Xinjiang. They prefer a water temperature of approximately 15 degrees Celsius.

It is now distinguished from Pelophylax kurtmuelleri (Balkan Frog), which it resembles greatly, and which outnumbers it in most of Greece.

See also

* Edible Frog


References


* Kuzmin, S. et al. (2004). Rana ridibunda. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006. Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is of least concern

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