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Zygoballus rufipes

Zygoballus rufipes (*)

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Superphylum: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Classis: Arachnida
Ordo: Araneae
Subordo: Araneomorphae
Infraordo: Araneomorphi
Series: Entelegynae
Superfamilia: Salticoidea
Familia: Salticidae
Subfamilia: Dendryphantinae
Tribus: Zygoballini
Genus: Zygoballus
Species: Zygoballus rufipes

Zygoballus rufipes, commonly called the hammerjawed jumper, is a species of jumping spider which occurs in the United States, Canada, and Central America. Adult females are 4.3 to 6 mm in body length, while males are 3 to 4 mm.[1]


The species was first described in 1885 by George and Elizabeth Peckham from a specimen in Guatemala.[2] The Peckhams subsequently described the northern variant as a separate species, Z. bettini, in 1888.[3] In 1980, after examining specimens of Z. bettini and Z. rufipes from various populations, G. B. Edwards concluded that the differences mentioned by the Peckhams were not consistently distinct and that the two names represented a single species of variable appearance.[4] The two names were therefore synonomized. The genus Zygoballus is currently classified in the subfamily Dendryphantinae of the family Salticidae (jumping spiders).[5]


Zygoballus rufipes has been reported from Canada,[6] the United States,[7] Mexico,[8] Guatemala,[2] and Costa Rica.[9] In 1929, entomologist Nathan Banks reported a female specimen from Panama.[10] In 1946, however, arachnologist Arthur M. Chickering concluded that Banks' specimen belonged to the newly described species, Zygoballus optatus. Chickering himself found no specimens of Z. rufipes in Panama after collecting there for several years.[11] A one-year survey of Panamanian spiders conducted by zoologist Wolfgang Nentwig also failed to yield the species.[12]


^ Kaston, Benjamin Julian (1981). Spiders of Connecticut (Revised ed.). State of Connecticut. pp. 496–497.
^ a b Peckham, George; Peckham, Elizabeth (1885). "On some new genera and species of Attidae from the eastern part of Guatemala". Proceedings of the Natural History Society of Wisconsin: 62–86.
^ Peckham, George; Peckham, Elizabeth (1888). "Attidae of North America". Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters 7: 89–90.
^ Edwards, G. B. (December 1980). "Jumping spiders of the United States and Canada: changes in the key and list (4)". Peckhamia 2 (1): 11–14.
^ Hedin, Marshal C.; Maddison, Wayne P. (March 2001). "A Combined Molecular Approach to Phylogeny of the Jumping Spider Subfamily Dendryphantinae (Araneae: Salticidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18 (3): 386–403. doi:10.1006/mpev.2000.0883. PMID 11277632.
^ Maddison, Wayne P. (1996). "Pelegrina Franganillo and other jumping spiders formerly placed in the genus Metaphidippus (Araneae: Salticidae)". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard University) 154: 215–368.
^ Emerton, James Henry (1902). The Common Spiders of the United States. p. 48. ISBN 0486202232.
^ Pickard-Cambridge, Frederick O. (1897–1905). Arachnida: Araneidea and Opiliones. Volume II. Biologia Centrali-Americana. p. 291.
^ Reimoser, E. (1939). "Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der österreichischen biologischen Expedition nach Costa Rica: Die Spinnenfauna" (in German). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 50: 328–386.
^ Banks, Nathan (1929). "Spiders from Panama". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 69 (3): 51–96.
^ Chickering, Arthur M. (September 1946). "The Salticidae (Spiders) of Panama". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 97: 404–414.
^ Nentwig, Wolfgang (1993). Spiders of Panama. Sandhill Crane Press. p. 29. ISBN 1877743186.

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