Hellenica World

Adephaga

Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Cladus: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Cladus: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Endopterygota
Superordo: Coleopterida
Ordo: Coleoptera
Subordo: Adephaga
Superfamiliae: Caraboidea - Dytiscoidea - Gyrinoidea - Haliploidea - †Triaploidea

Overview of familiae

Amphizoidae - Aspidytidae - Carabidae - Cicindelidae - Dytiscidae - Gyrinidae - Haliplidae - Hygrobiidae - Meruidae - Noteridae - Rhysodidae - Trachypachidae - †Colymbotethidae - †Coptoclavidae - †Liadytidae - †Parahygrobiidae - †Triaplidae

clades

Geadephaga - ?Hydradephaga
Haliplomorpha - Carabomorpha

* incertae sedis: †Triaploidea


Name

Adephaga

References

* Beutel, R.G.; Ribera, I.; Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. 2008: A genus-level supertree of Adephaga (Coleoptera). Organisms, diversity & evolution, 7: 255-269. PDF
* Hunt, T.; Bergsten, J.; Levkanicova, Z.; Papadopoulou, A.; St. John, O.; Wild, R.; Hammond, P.M.; Ahrens, D.; Balke, M.; Caterino, M.S.; Gomez-Zurita, J.; Ribera, I.; Barraclough, T.G.; Bocakova, M.; Bocak, L.; Vogler, A.P. 2007: A comprehensive phylogeny of beetles reveals the evolutionary origins of a superradiation. Science, 318: 1913-1916. [1]
* Maddison, D.R.; Moore, W.; Baker, M.D.; Ellis, T.M.; Ober, K.A.; Cannone, J.J.; Gutell, R.R. 2009: Monophyly of terrestrial adephagan beetles as indicated by three nuclear genes (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Trachypachidae). Zoologica scripta, 38: 43-62.
* Catalogue of Palearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 1 ed. I. Löbl, & A. Smetana, Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark, 2003 and 2004, p.26 ISBN 87-88757-73-0


links

* Australian Faunal Directory
* Maddison, David R. 1995. Adephaga. Ground beetles, tiger beetles, whirligigs, predacious diving beetles, wrinkled bark beetles, and others. Version 01 January 1995 (under construction) in The Tree of Life Web Project
* Atlas of beetles of Russia


Vernacular names
Česky: masožraví
English: adephagans
Español: Adéfaga
Lietuvių: Plėšrieji vabalai
Magyar: Ragadozó bogarak
日本語: オサムシ亜目 (食肉亜目)
Polski: Chrząszcze drapieżne
Русский: Плотоядные жуки
Suomi: Petokuoriaiset
Svenska: Rovskalbaggar

--------------

Adephaga (from Greek ἀδηφάγος, adephagos, "gluttonous"), with more than 40,000 recorded species in 10 families, is a suborder of highly specialized beetles and the second largest suborder of the order Coleoptera. Members of this suborder are adephagans, a term which notably include ground beetles, tiger beetles, predacious diving beetles, and whirligig beetles. The majority of the species belong to the family of carabids, or ground beetles (Carabidae).


Anatomy

Adephagans have simple feelers with no pectination or clubs. The galea of the first maxilla usually consists of two segments. Adult adephagans have visible notopleural suture. The first visible abdominal sternum is completely separated by the hind coxae, which is one of the most easily recognizable traits of adephagans. There are 5 segments on each foot.

Wings

The transverse fold of the hindwing is near the wing tip. The median nervure ends at this fold, where it is joined by a cross nervure.

Internal organs

Adephagans have four malpighian tubules. Unlike in other beetles, yolk chambers alternate with egg chambers in the ovarian tubes of adephagans. The coiled, tubular testes consist of a single follicle; and the ovaries are polytrophic.

Chemical glands

All families of adephagan have paired pygidial glands located postero-dorsally in the abdomen, which are used for secreting chemicals. The glands consist of complex invaginations of the cuticle lined with epidermal cells contiguous with the integument. The glands have no connection with the rectum and open on the eighth abdominal tergum.

Secretions pass from the secretory lobes, which are aggregations of secretory cell, through a tube to a reservoir lined with muscles. This reservoir then narrows to a tube leading to an opening valve. The secretory lobes differ structurally from a taxon to another: it may be elongate or oval, branched basally, apically or unbranched.

Delivery of glandular compounds

The secretion is realized in one of the following three manners:

* Oozing: if the gland is not muscle-lined, the discharge is limited in amount,
* Spraying: if the gland is muscle-lined, which is typically the case of carabids, the substances are ejected more or less forcefully,
* Crepitation: only associated with the Brachininae carabids and several related species. See bombardier beetle for a detailed description of the mechanism.

The secretion differ in the chemical constituents, according to the taxa. Gyrinids, for instance, secrete norsesquiterpenes such as gyrinidal, isogyrinidal, gyrinidione or gyrinidone. Dytiscids discharge aromatic aldehydes, esters and acids, especially benzoic acid. Carabids typically produce carboxylic acids, particularly formic acid, methacrylic acid and tiglic acid, but also aliphatic ketones, saturated esters, phenols, aromatic aldehydes and quinones. Accessory glands or modified structures are present in some taxa: the Dytiscidae and Hygrobiidae also possess paired prothoracic glands secreting steroids; and the Gyrinidae are unique in the extended shape of the external opening of the pygidial gland.

The function of many compounds remain unknown. Yet hypothesis have been advanced:

* Toxins or feed deterrent against predators. Some compounds indirectly play this role by easing the penetration of the deterrent into the predator's integument.
* Antimicrobial and antifungal agents (especially in Hydradephaga),
* A means to increase wetability of the integument (especially in Hydradephaga),
* Alarm pheromones (especially in Gyrinidae),
* Propellant on water surfaces (especially in Gyrinidae),
* Condition plant tissues associated with oviposition.


Distribution and habitat

Habitats range from caves to rainforest canopy and alpine habitats. The body forms of some are structurally modified for adaptation to habitats: members of the family gyrinidae live at the air-water interface, rhysodines in heartwood, paussine carabids in ant nests.

Feeding

Most species are predators. Other less typical forms of feeding include: algophagy (family Haliplidae), seed-feeding (arpaline carabids), mycophagy (rhysodine carabids), snail-feeding (licinine and cychrine carabids). Some species are ectoparasitoids of insects (brachinine and lebiine carabids) or of millipedes (peleciine carabids).

Reproduction and larval stage

Some species are ovoviviparous, such as pseudomorphine carabids.

The larvae are active, with well-chitinized cuticle, often with elongate cerci and five-segmented legs, the foot-segment carrying two claws. Larvae have a fused labrum and no mandibular molae.

Phylogeny

Adephagans diverged from their sister group in the late Permian, the most recent common ancestor of living adephagans probably existing in the early Triassic, around 240 million years ago. Both aquatic and terrestrial representatives of the suborder appear in fossil records of the late Triassic. The Jurassic fauna consisted of trachypachids, carabids, gyrinids, and haliplid-like forms. The familial and tribal diversification of the group spans the Mesozoic, with a few tribes radiating explosively during the Tertiary.

The phylogeny of adephagans is disputed. The group is usually divided into two main groups:

* The Geadephaga, comprising the two terrestrial families Carabidae and Trachypachidae (the Trachypachidae is sometimes considered a subfamily of the Carabidae), and
* The Hydradephaga, gathering all other families, which are aquatic.

This division is often criticized, as mounting evidence is pointing out that the two groups are not monophyletic.

Biology Encyclopedia

Insects Images

Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Index

Scientific Library - Scientificlib.com