Hellenica World


Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Superphylum: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Classis: Malacostraca
Subclassis: Eumalacostraca
Superordo: Eucarida
Ordo: Decapoda
Subordines: Dendrobranchiata - Pleocyemata


Decapoda Latreille, 1802


* Latreille, P. A., (1802). Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes, vol. 3, 1–467.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Zehnfußkrebse
Ελληνικά: Δεκάποδα
Español: Decápodos
Italiano: Decapodi
Nederlands: Tienpotigen
Türkçe: On ayaklılar


The decapods or Decapoda (literally means "ten footed") are an order of crustaceans within the class Malacostraca, including many familiar groups, such as crayfish, crabs, lobsters, prawns and shrimp. Most decapods are scavengers. It is estimated that the order contains nearly 15,000 species in around 2,700 genera, with approximately 3,300 fossil species.[1] Nearly half of these species are crabs, with the shrimps (c. 3000 species) and Anomura (including hermit crabs, porcelain crabs, squat lobsters: c. 2500 species), making up the bulk of the remainder.[1] The earliest fossil decapod is the Devonian Palaeopalaemon.[2]
As their name implies, all decapods have ten legs; these are five pairs of thoracic appendages on the last five thoracic segments. The front three pairs function as mouthparts and are generally referred to as maxillipeds, the remainder being pereiopods. In many decapods, however, one pair of legs has enlarged pincers; the claws are called chelae, so those legs may be called chelipeds. Further appendages are found on the abdomen, with each segment capable of carrying a pair of biramous pleopods, the last of which form part of the tail fan (together with the telson) and are called uropods.


Classification within the order Decapoda depends on the structure of the gills and legs, and the way in which the larvae develop, giving rise to two suborders: Dendrobranchiata and Pleocyemata. Dendrobranchiata consists of prawns, including many species colloquially referred to as "shrimp", such as the Atlantic white shrimp. Pleocyemata includes the remaining groups, including true shrimp. Those groups which usually walk rather than swim (Pleocyemata, excluding Stenopodidea and Caridea) form a clade called Reptantia.[3]

1. ^ a b c Sammy De Grave, N. Dean Pentcheff, Shane T. Ahyong et al. (2009). "A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans". Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. 21: 1–109. http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/s21/s21rbz1-109.pdf.
2. ^ Robert P. D. Crean (November 14, 2004). "Order Decapoda: Fossil record and evolution". University of Bristol. http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/Decapoda/Fossilrecord.html. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
3. ^ G. Scholtz & S. Richter (1995). "Phylogenetic systematics of the reptantian Decapoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 113: 289–328. doi:10.1006/zjls.1995.0011.

Biology Encyclopedia


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