22 Kalliope

22 Kalliope
Discovery A
Discoverer John Russell Hind
Discovery date November 16, 1852
Alternate
designations
none B
Category Main belt
Orbital elements C D
Epoch November 12, 2005 (JD 2453686.5)
Eccentricity (e) 0.103
Semi-major axis (a) 435.182 Gm (2.909 AU)
Perihelion (q) 390.433 Gm (2.610 AU)
Aphelion (Q) 479.931 Gm (3.208 AU)
Orbital period (P) 1812.245 d (4.96 a)
Mean orbital speed 17.42 km/s
Inclination (i) 13.710°
Longitude of the
ascending node (Ω)
66.240°
Argument of
perihelion (ω)
356.172°
Mean anomaly (M) 303.545°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 181.0 km
Mass 7.36—1018 kg
Density 2.37 g/cm³ [1]
Surface gravity 0.0599 m/s²
Escape velocity 0.1042 km/s
Rotation period 0.1728 d (4.148 h) [2]
Spectral class M
Absolute magnitude 6.45
Albedo 0.142 [3]
Mean surface
temperature
~161 K

22 Kalliope (ka-lye'-a-pee) is a very large main belt asteroid discovered by J. R. Hind on November 16, 1852. It is named after Calliope, the Greek Muse of epic poetry.

Kalliope is 181 km in diameter, and is a M-type asteroid, indicating fairly pure nickel-iron composition. However, recent measurements show that 22 Kalliope's density is only 2.37 g/cm³, so it must contain considerable amount of other materials. Observations from the European Southern Observatory indicate that the asteroid is slightly elongated in shape. [4]

On August 29, 2001, astronomers Jean-Luc Margot and Michael E. Brown discovered a moon orbiting 22 Kalliope with the Keck telescope. Another team also detected the moon with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope on September 2, 2001. The moon received the provisional designation S/2001 (22) 1, and was later named (22) Kalliope I Linus after the mythological figure. Linus is about 38 km in diameter and orbits about 1,000 km from Kalliope. It may be impact ejecta from a collision with Kalliope or a fragment captured after disruption of a parent asteroid (a proto-Kalliope).


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